O M Howard, W L Farrar
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus 8, a virus that appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphomas, encodes a G protein-coupled receptor (KSHV-GPCR) that exhibits constitutive signaling. In this report, we show that two chemokines, interleukin 8 (IL-8) and growth-related protein-alpha, activate KSHV-GPCR over constitutive levels. Moreover, as with human receptors, the integrity of the ELR motif of these chemokines is required for activation of KSHV-GPCR. Other residues that are required for IL-8 binding to human chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 are important for KSHV-GPCR activation also. Thus, it appears that the ELR binding site and other key domains of ELR chemokine activation have been preserved in the virus KSHV-GPCR. The results suggest that KSHV-GPCR originated from CXCR1 or CXCR2 and that activation of KSHV-GPCR by endogenous chemokines may affect the pathobiology of KSHV infection in humans.
M C Gershengorn, E Geras-Raaka, A Varma, I Clark-Lewis
Immune reactions in the gut are associated with increased epithelial cell proliferation. Here we have studied the role of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF; FGF7) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) in the epithelial cell hyperplasia seen in explants of fetal human small intestine after activation of lamina propria T cells with the superantigen Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB). After the addition of SEB to the explants there is a 10-fold increase in KGF mRNA by 72 h of culture. KGF transcripts were abundant in the lamina propria using in situ hybridization and the culture supernatants contained elevated amounts of KGF protein. SEB had no direct effect on KGF mRNA and protein production by cultured lamina propria mesenchymal cells, but both were upregulated by TNF-alpha. Accompanying the increase in KGF there was also an increase in TGF-alpha precursor proteins in the culture supernatants and the phosphorylated form of the EGFR receptor was also detected in the tissue. Increased TGF-alpha precursor proteins were also detected in the supernatants of control explants stimulated with KGF alone. The direct addition of KGF and TGF-alpha enhanced epithelial cell proliferation and antibodies against KGF and TGF-alpha partially inhibited SEB-induced crypt hyperplasia. These results suggest molecular cross-talk between the KGF/KGFR and the TGF-alpha/EGFR in immune-mediated crypt cell hyperplasia.
M Bajaj-Elliott, R Poulsom, S L Pender, N C Wathen, T T MacDonald
Matings of mice heterozygous for a protein C (PC) deficient allele, produced by targeted PC gene inactivation, yielded the expected Mendelian distribution of PC genotypes. Pups with a total deficiency of PC (PC-/-), obtained at embryonic day (E) 17.5 and at birth, appeared to develop normally macroscopically, but possessed obvious signs of bleeding and thrombosis and did not survive beyond 24 h after delivery. Microscopic examination of tissues and blood vessels of E17.5 PC-/- mice revealed their normal development, but scattered microvascular thrombosis in the brain combined with focal necrosis in the liver was observed. In addition, bleeding was noted in the brain near sites of fibrin deposition. The severity of these pathologies was exaggerated in PC-/- neonates. Plasma clottable fibrinogen was not detectable in coagulation assays in PC-/- neonatal mice, suggestive of fibrinogen depletion and secondary consumptive coagulopathy. Thus, while total PC deficiency did not affect the anatomic development of the embryo, severe perinatal consumptive coagulopathy occurred in the brain and liver of PC-/- mice, suggesting that a total PC deficiency is inconsistent with short-term survival.
L R Jalbert, E D Rosen, L Moons, J C Chan, P Carmeliet, D Collen, F J Castellino
The embryonic development of mammalian kidneys is completed during the perinatal period with a dramatic increase in urine production, as the burden of eliminating nitrogenous metabolic waste shifts from the placenta to the kidney. This urine is normally removed by peristaltic contraction of the renal pelvis, a smooth muscle structure unique to placental mammals. Mutant mice completely lacking angiotensin type 1 receptor genes do not develop a renal pelvis, resulting in the buildup of urine and progressive kidney damage. In mutants the ureteral smooth muscle layer is hypoplastic and lacks peristaltic movements. We show that angiotensin can induce the ureteral smooth muscles in organ cultures of wild-type, but not mutant, ureteral tissues and that, in wild-type mice, expression of both renal angiotensin and the receptor are transiently upregulated at the renal outlet at birth. These results reveal a new role for angiotensin in the unique cellular adaptations of the mammalian kidney to the physiological stresses of postnatal life.
Y Miyazaki, S Tsuchida, H Nishimura, J C Pope 4th, R C Harris, J M McKanna, T Inagami, B L Hogan, A Fogo, I Ichikawa
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease of sarcomeric proteins. The mechanism by which mutant sarcomeric proteins cause HCM is unknown. The leading hypothesis proposes that mutant sarcomeric proteins exert a dominant-negative effect on myocyte structure and function. To test this, we produced transgenic mice expressing low levels of normal or mutant human cardiac troponin T (cTnT). We constructed normal (cTnT-Arg92) and mutant (cTnT-Gln92) transgenes, driven by a murine cTnT promoter, and produced three normal and five mutant transgenic lines, which were identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Expression levels of the transgene proteins, detected using a specific antibody, ranged from 1 to 10% of the total cTnT pool. M-mode and Doppler echocardiography showed normal left ventricular dimensions and systolic function, but diastolic dysfunction in the mutant mice evidenced by a 50% reduction in the E/A ratio of mitral inflow velocities. Histological examination showed cardiac myocyte disarray in the mutant mice, which amounted to 1-15% of the total myocardium, and a twofold increase in the myocardial interstitial collagen content. Thus, the mutant cTnT-Gln92, responsible for human HCM, exerted a dominant-negative effect on cardiac structure and function leading to disarray, increased collagen synthesis, and diastolic dysfunction in transgenic mice.
L Oberst, G Zhao, J T Park, R Brugada, L H Michael, M L Entman, R Roberts, A J Marian
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric carcinoma. The potential role of CD95-mediated apoptosis was investigated in a panel of gastric biopsies obtained from patients with H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis (n = 29) and with noninfected normal mucosa (n = 10). Immunohistochemistry revealed increased CD95 receptor expression in epithelial and lamina propria cells in chronic gastritis. By in situ hybridization, CD95 ligand mRNA was absent or low in normal mucosa but expressed at high levels in lamina propria lymphocytes and, unexpectedly, in epithelial cells in chronic gastritis. Apoptotic cells were rare in normal mucosa but were observed regularly in chronic gastritis in close proximity to CD95 ligand mRNA expression throughout the epithelial and lamina propria cells. In a functional analysis gastric epithelial cell lines were incubated with supernatants of H. pylori. Treatment with the cytotoxic isolate H. pylori 60190 but not with the noncytotoxic isolate Tx30a upregulated CD95 in up to 50% of gastric epithelial cells and induced apoptosis in these cells. H. pylori-induced apoptosis was partially prevented by blocking CD95, demonstrating the functional role of the CD95 system. These findings suggest that H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis involves apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells by activation of the CD95 receptor and ligand system.
J Rudi, D Kuck, S Strand, A von Herbay, S M Mariani, P H Krammer, P R Galle, W Stremmel
To better understand the stage(s) of differentiation reached by B-type chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells and to gain insight into the potential role of antigenic stimulation in the development and diversification of these cells, we analyzed the rearranged VH genes expressed by 83 B-CLL cells (64 IgM+ and 19 non-IgM+). Our results confirm and extend the observations of a bias in the use of certain VH, D, and JH genes among B-CLL cells. In addition, they indicate that the VH genes of approximately 50% of the IgM+ B-CLL cells and approximately 75% of the non-IgM+ B-CLL cells can exhibit somatic mutations. The presence of mutation varies according to the VH family expressed by the B-CLL cell (VH3 expressers displaying more mutation than VH1 and VH4 expressers). In addition, the extent of mutation can be sizeable with approximately 32% of the IgM+ cases and approximately 68% of the non-IgM+ cases differing by > 5% from the most similar germline gene. Approximately 20% of the mutated VH genes display replacement mutations in a pattern consistent with antigen selection. However, CDR3 characteristics (D and JH gene use and association and HCDR3 length, composition, and charge) suggest that selection for distinct B cell receptors (BCR) occurs in many more B-CLL cells. Based on these data, we suggest three prototypic BCR, representing the VH genes most frequently encountered in our study. These data suggest that many B-CLL cells have been previously stimulated, placing them in the "experienced" or "memory" CD5(+) B cell subset.
F Fais, F Ghiotto, S Hashimoto, B Sellars, A Valetto, S L Allen, P Schulman, V P Vinciguerra, K Rai, L Z Rassenti, T J Kipps, G Dighiero, H W Schroeder Jr, M Ferrarini, N Chiorazzi
Leukocyte recruitment requires leukocyte rolling, activation, firm adhesion, and transmigration. Injection of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha induces expression of E-selectin, interleukin-8, and other adhesion molecules and chemoattractants on the endothelial surface. TNF-alpha- treated CD18 null mouse cremaster muscle venules show increased leukocyte rolling velocity and reduced leukocyte recruitment efficiency. Leukocyte recruitment in CD18 null but not wild-type mice is significantly blocked by an mAb to E-selectin. To understand this overlap between adhesion events previously considered separate, we introduce a quantitative analysis of the efficiency of induction of rolling, conversion of rolling to adhesion, and of adhesion to transmigration. We find that CD18 and E-selectin cooperate to control the time a leukocyte needs to roll through an inflamed area and to convert rolling to firm adhesion. Leukocyte rolling time, defined as the time it takes for a rolling leukocyte to pass through a defined length of a vessel segment, emerges as a unifying parameter determining the efficiency of inducing firm adhesion, which is a rate-limiting step controlling leukocyte recruitment in inflammation. We conclude that leukocytes integrate chemoattractant signals while rolling along the endothelial surface until they reach a critical level of activation and become firmly adherent.
U Jung, K E Norman, K Scharffetter-Kochanek, A L Beaudet, K Ley
The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), an important modulator of cardiac inotropy and chronotropy, has significant genetic heterogeneity in the population. Because dysfunctional betaARs play a role in the pathogenesis of the failing ventricle, we tested the hypothesis that beta2AR polymorphisms alter the outcome of congestive heart failure. 259 patients with NYHA functional class II-IV heart failure due to ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy were genotyped and prospectively followed, with the endpoint defined as death or cardiac transplantation. The allele frequencies between this group and those of 212 healthy controls also were compared and did not differ between the groups. However, those with the Ile164 polymorphism displayed a striking difference in survival with a relative risk of death or cardiac transplant of 4.81 (P < 0.001) compared with those with the wild-type Thr at this position. Age, race, gender, functional class, etiology, ejection fraction, and medication use did not differ between these individuals and those with the wild-type beta2AR, and thus the beta2AR genotype at position 164 was the only clear distinguishing feature between the two groups. The 1-yr survival for Ile164 patients was 42% compared with 76% for patients harboring wild-type beta2AR. In contrast, polymorphisms at amino acid positions 16 (Arg or Gly) or 27 (Gln or Glu), which also alter receptor phenotype, did not appear to have an influence on the course of heart failure. Taken together with cell-based and transgenic mouse results, this study establishes a paradigm whereby genetic variants of key signaling elements can have pathophysiologic consequences within the context of a disease. Furthermore, patients with the Ile164 polymorphism and heart failure may be candidates for earlier aggressive intervention or cardiac transplantation.
S B Liggett, L E Wagoner, L L Craft, R W Hornung, B D Hoit, T C McIntosh, R A Walsh
Microbial coinfections variably influence HIV-1 infection through immune activation or direct interaction of microorganisms with HIV-1 or its target cells. In this study, we investigated whether exposure of macrophages to bacterial products impacts the susceptibility of these cells to HIV-1 of different cellular tropisms. We demonstrate that () macrophages exposed to bacterial cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Gram-negative rods), lipoteichoic acid (Gram-positive cocci), and lipoarabinomannan (Mycobacteria) become highly susceptible to T cell (T)-tropic HIV-1 (which otherwise poorly replicate in macrophages) and variably susceptible to macrophage (M)-tropic HIV-1; () LPS-stimulated macrophages secrete a number of soluble factors (i.e., chemokines, interferon, and proinflammatory cytokines) that variably affect HIV infection of macrophages, depending on the virus phenotype in question; and () LPS-stimulated macrophages express CCR5 (a major coreceptor for M-tropic HIV-1) at lower levels and CXCR4 (a major coreceptor for T-tropic HIV-1) at higher levels compared with unstimulated macrophages. We hypothesize that a more favorable environment for T-tropic HIV-1 and a less favorable or even unfavorable environment for M-tropic HIV-1 secondary to exposure of macrophages to those bacterial products may accerelate a transition from M- to T-tropic viral phenotype, which is indicative of disease progression.
M Moriuchi, H Moriuchi, W Turner, A S Fauci
Dramatic clonal expansions of unknown functional significance have been documented in the T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta peripheral blood repertoires of apparently healthy adults. In this study, we provide evidence that persistent infection with the ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes major distortions within the memory repertoire of healthy virus carriers. Using complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) length analysis to measure repertoire diversity, dominant expansions that dramatically skewed the entire TCRBV6 blood repertoire towards oligoclonality were enriched in the CD8(+)CD45RO+CD45RA- subset of HLA B8(+) healthy virus carriers. Evidence of phenotypic heterogeneity between individuals was also observed for these expansions based on their variable coexpression of CD45RO and CD45RA. TCR junctional region sequencing revealed that these expansions were clonal and that they represented commonly selected HLA B8-restricted memory cytotoxic T cells that recognize the immunodominant latent EBV epitope, FLRGRAYGL. Furthermore, the functional identity of these virus-specific CD8(+) T cells was confirmed by their FLRGRAYGL-specific cytotoxicity. Therefore, the functional significance of dramatic clonal expansions in healthy adults can be linked in some cases to virus-specific CD8(+) T cells that play an essential role in immunosurveillance. This first identified link for expansions in the circulation of healthy adults strongly implies that restricted-memory TCR responses to environmental antigens play a pivotal role in expansion development, which should have an important impact on studies interpreting TCR expansion patterns in health and disease.
S L Silins, S M Cross, K G Krauer, D J Moss, C W Schmidt, I S Misko
The role of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in the clearance of apo-B48-containing lipoproteins and the role of the LDLR-related protein (LRP) in the removal of apo-B100-containing lipoproteins have not been clearly defined. To address these issues, we characterized LDLR-deficient mice homozygous for an "apo-B48-only" allele, an "apo-B100-only" allele, or a wild-type apo-B allele (Ldlr-/- Apob48/48, Ldlr-/-Apob100/100, and Ldlr-/-Apob+/+, respectively). The plasma apo-B48 and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in Ldlr-/-Apob48/48 mice than in Apob48/48 mice, indicating that the LDL receptor plays a significant role in the removal of apo-B48-containing lipoproteins. To examine the role of the LRP in the clearance of apo-B100-containing lipoproteins, we blocked hepatic LRP function in Ldlr-/-Apob100/100 mice by adenoviral-mediated expression of the receptor-associated protein (RAP). RAP expression did not change apo-B100 levels in Ldlr-/-Apob100/100 mice. In contrast, RAP expression caused a striking increase in plasma apo-B48 levels in Apob48/48 and Ldlr-/-Apob48/48 mice. These data imply that LRP is important for the clearance of apo-B48-containing lipoproteins but plays no significant role in the clearance of apo-B100-containing lipoproteins.
M M Véniant, C H Zlot, R L Walzem, V Pierotti, R Driscoll, D Dichek, J Herz, S G Young
Based on a genomic search for linkage, a locus contributing to type 1 diabetes in a large Bedouin Arab family (19 affected relatives) maps to the long arm of chromosome 10 (10q25; nonparametric linkage = 4.99; P = 0.00004). All affected relatives carry one or two high-risk HLA-DR3 haplotypes that are rarely found in other family members. One chromosome 10 haplotype, the B haplotype, was transmitted from a heterozygous parent to 13 of 13 affected offspring compared to 10 of 23 unaffected siblings. Recombination events occurring on this haplotype place the susceptibility locus in an 8-cM interval between markers D10S1750 and D10S1773. Two adjacent markers, D10S592 and D10S554, showed evidence of linkage disequilibrium with the disease locus. A 273-bp allele at D10S592 was transmitted to 8 of 10 affected offspring compared to 3 of 14 unaffected siblings, and a 151-bp allele at D10S554 was transmitted to 15 of 15 affected offspring compared with 10 of 24 unaffected siblings. D10S554 and D10S592 and the closest flanking markers are contained in a 1,240-kb yeast artificial chromosome, a region small enough to proceed with positional cloning.
C F Verge, P Vardi, S Babu, F Bao, H A Erlich, T Bugawan, D Tiosano, L Yu, G S Eisenbarth, P R Fain
To investigate the roles of the cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) in the control of the renin system, we studied the regulation of renin in cGKI- or cGKII-deficient mice in vivo and in vitro. Renal renin mRNA levels both under stimulatory (low-salt diet plus ramipril) and inhibitory (high-salt diet) conditions were not different between wild-type and cGKI-/- mice, but were significantly elevated in cGKII-/- mice under all experimental conditions. In primary cultures of renal juxtaglomerular cells (JG) established from wild-type, cGKI-/-, and cGKII-/- mice, the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin stimulated renin secretion similarly in all genotypes tested. 8-bromo-cGMP attenuated basal and forskolin-stimulated renin secretion in cultures from wild-type and cGKI-/-, but had no effect in cells isolated from cGKII-/- mice. Activation of cGKs by 8-bromo-cGMP decreased renin secretion from the isolated perfused rat kidney, independent of prestimulation by beta-adrenoreceptor activation, macula densa inhibition, reduced perfusion pressure, or by a nominally calcium-free perfusate. Taken together, these findings suggest that activation of cGKII has a general inhibitory effect on renin secretion from renal JG cells.
C Wagner, A Pfeifer, P Ruth, F Hofmann, A Kurtz
Neutrophil defensins (or human neutrophil peptides-HNP) are major constituents of the azurophilic granules of human neutrophils and have been shown to display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Other activities of these defensins, which are released from stimulated neutrophils, include cytotoxic, stimulatory, and chemotactic activities toward a variety of target cells. We studied the potential use of HNP-1 for antibacterial therapy of experimental bacterial infections in mice. In experimental peritoneal Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in mice, HNP-1 injection was shown to markedly reduce bacterial numbers in the infected peritoneal cavity 24 h after infection. This antibacterial effect was found to be associated with an increased influx of macrophages, granulocytes, and lymphocytes into the peritoneal cavity. These leukocytes appeared to be a requirement for the antibacterial effect, since in leukocytopenic mice administration of HNP-1 did not display antibacterial activity. HNP-1 treatment also reduced bacterial numbers in experimental K. pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus thigh muscle infections. In this model, radiolabeled HNP-1 was found to accumulate at the site of infection, whereas most of the injected HNP-1 was rapidly removed from the circulation via renal excretion. These results demonstrate that neutrophil defensins display marked in vivo antibacterial activity in experimental infections in mice and that this activity appears to be mediated, at least in part, by local leukocyte accumulation.
M M Welling, P S Hiemstra, M T van den Barselaar, A Paulusma-Annema, P H Nibbering, E K Pauwels, W Calame
T cell recognition of drugs is explained by the hapten-carrier model, implying covalent binding of chemically reactive drugs to carrier proteins. However, most drugs are nonreactive and their recognition by T cells is unclear. We generated T cell clones from allergic individuals specific to sulfamethoxazole, lidocaine (nonreactive drugs), and cef-triaxone (per se reactive beta-lactam antibiotic) and compared the increase of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the kinetics of T cell receptor (TCR) downregulation of these clones by drug-specific stimulations. All drugs tested induced an MHC-restricted, dose- and antigen-presenting cell (APC)-dependent TCR downregulation on specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell clones. Chemically nonreactive drugs elicited an immediate and sustained [Ca2+]i increase and a rapid TCR downregulation, but only when these drugs were added in solution to APC and clone. In contrast, the chemically reactive hapten ceftriaxone added in solution needed > 6 h to induce TCR downregulation. When APC were preincubated with ceftriaxone, a rapid downregulation of the TCR and cytokine secretion was observed, suggesting a stable presentation of a covalently modified peptide. Our data demonstrate two distinct pathways of drug presentation to activated specific T cells. The per se reactive ceftriaxone is presented after covalent binding to carrier peptides. Nonreactive drugs can be recognized by specific alphabeta+ T cells via a nonconventional presentation pathway based on a labile binding of the drug to MHC-peptide complexes.
M P Zanni, S von Greyerz, B Schnyder, K A Brander, K Frutig, Y Hari, S Valitutti, W J Pichler
Perlecan, a ubiquitous heparan sulfate proteoglycan, possesses angiogenic and growth-promoting attributes primarily by acting as a coreceptor for basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). In this report we blocked perlecan expression by using either constitutive CMV-driven or doxycycline- inducible antisense constructs. Growth of colon carcinoma cells was markedly attenuated upon obliteration of perlecan gene expression and these effects correlated with reduced responsiveness to and affinity for mitogenic keratinocyte growth factor (FGF-7). Exogenous perlecan effectively reconstituted the activity of FGF-7 in the perlecan-deficient cells. Moreover, soluble FGF-7 specifically bound immobilized perlecan in a heparan sulfate-independent manner. In both tumor xenografts induced by human colon carcinoma cells and tumor allografts induced by highly invasive mouse melanoma cells, perlecan suppression caused substantial inhibition of tumor growth and neovascularization. Thus, perlecan is a potent inducer of tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo and therapeutic interventions targeting this key modulator of tumor progression may improve cancer treatment.
B Sharma, M Handler, I Eichstetter, J M Whitelock, M A Nugent, R V Iozzo
We have recently reported that the Ca2+-binding protein S100beta was induced in rat heart after infarction and forced expression of S100beta in neonatal rat cardiac myocyte cultures inhibited alpha1-adrenergic induction of beta myosin heavy chain (MHC) and skeletal alpha-actin (skACT). We now extend this work by showing that S100beta is induced in hearts of human subjects after myocardial infarction. Furthermore, to determine whether overexpression of S100beta was sufficient to inhibit in vivo hypertrophy, transgenic mice containing multiple copies of the human gene under the control of its own promoter, and CD1 control mice were treated with norepinephrine (NE) (1.5 mg/kg) or vehicle, intraperitoneally twice daily for 15 d. In CD1, NE produced an increase in left ventricular/body weight ratio, ventricular wall thickness, induction of skACT, atrial natriuretic factor, betaMHC, and downregulation of alphaMHC. In transgenic mice, NE induced S100beta transgene mRNA and protein, but provoked neither hypertrophy nor regulated cardiac-specific gene expression. NE induced hypertrophy in cultured CD1 but not S100beta transgenic myocytes, confirming that the effects of S100beta on cardiac mass reflected myocyte-specific responses. These transgenic studies complement in vitro data and support the hypothesis that S100beta acts as an intrinsic negative regulator of the myocardial hypertrophic response.
J N Tsoporis, A Marks, H J Kahn, J W Butany, P P Liu, D O'Hanlon, T G Parker
The mast cell response in skin and lymph nodes was examined during the sensitization phase of dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact hypersensitivity in mice. Degranulation of 62% of mast cells in DNFB-exposed skin was evident within 30 min of a dual application of DNFB, reaching a peak of 77% at 24 h, and persisting in 42% after 5 d. Abundant expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta mRNAs and proteins was observed in keratinocytes, and mast cell degranulation was significantly inhibited after administration of neutralizing antibodies to MIP-1alpha, but not MIP-1beta. During DNFB sensitization, the mast cell density in the skin decreased by half, concurrent with a fivefold expansion of mast cell numbers in draining lymph nodes. Fluorescent-labeled mast cells injected into the skin appeared in draining lymph nodes after application of DNFB, followed by subsequent migration to the spleen. In lymph nodes, mast cells were an abundant and predominant source of MIP-1beta, neutralization of which partially inhibited T lymphocyte recruitment. These results indicate that mast cells contribute to the induction of this primary immune response by activation at and migration from the site of antigen encounter to draining lymph nodes, wherein they mediate T lymphocyte recruitment by production of MIP-1beta.
H W Wang, N Tedla, A R Lloyd, D Wakefield, P H McNeil
Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common secondary cause of osteoporosis. We conducted a 12-mo, randomized clinical trial of human parathyroid hormone 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) in postmenopausal women (mean age was 63 yr) with osteoporosis who were taking corticosteroids and hormone replacement therapy. Response to the treatment was assessed with bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the lumbar spine by quantitative computed tomography (QCT); BMD measurements of the lumbar spine, hip, and forearm by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The mean (+/-SE) changes in BMD of the lumbar spine by QCT and DXA in the PTH group were 35+/-5.5% and 11+/-1.4%, respectively, compared with a relatively small change of 1.7+/-1.8% and 0+/-0.9% in the estrogen-only group. The differences in mean percentage between the groups at 1 yr were 33.5% for the lumbar spine by QCT (P < 0.001) and 9.8% for the lumbar spine by DXA (P < 0.001). The changes in the hip and forearm were not significantly different between or within the groups. During the first 3 mo of PTH treatment, markers of bone formation increased to nearly 150%, whereas markers of bone resorption increased only 100%, suggesting an early uncoupling of bone turnover in favor of formation. These results suggest that parathyroid hormone dramatically increases bone mass in the central skeleton of postmenopausal women with corticosteroid- induced osteoporosis who are taking hormone replacement.
N E Lane, S Sanchez, G W Modin, H K Genant, E Pierini, C D Arnaud
Genetic evidence supports a critical role for the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in both clearance of fetal lung liquid at birth and total body electrolyte homeostasis. Evidence from heterologous expression systems suggests that expression of the alphaENaC subunit is essential for channel function, whereas residual channel function can be measured in the absence of beta or gamma subunits. We generated mice without gammaENaC (gammaENaC -/-) to test the role of this subunit in neonatal lung liquid clearance and total body electrolyte balance. Relative to controls, gammaENaC (-/-) pups showed low urinary [K+] and high urinary [Na+] and died between 24 and 36 h, probably from hyperkalemia (gammaENaC -/- 18.3 mEq/l, control littermates 9.7 mEq/l). Newborn gammaENaC (-/-) mice cleared lung liquid more slowly than control littermates, but lung water at 12 h (wet/dry = 5.5) was nearly normal (wet/dry = 5.3). This study suggests that gammaENaC facilitates neonatal lung liquid clearance and is critical for renal Na+ and K+ transport, and that low level Na+ transport may be sufficient for perinatal lung liquid absorption but insufficient to maintain electrolyte balance by the distal nephron. The gammaENaC (-/-) newborn exhibits a phenotype that resembles the clinical manifestations of human neonatal PHA1.
P M Barker, M S Nguyen, J T Gatzy, B Grubb, H Norman, E Hummler, B Rossier, R C Boucher, B Koller