While many point mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) confer resistance to antiretroviral drugs, inserts or deletions in this gene have not been previously characterized. In this report, 14 RT inhibitor-treated patients were found to have HIV-1 strains possessing a 6-basepair insert between codons 69 and 70 of the RT gene. Known drug resistance mutations were also observed in these strains, with T215Y appearing in all strains. Genotypic analysis indicated that the inserts had substantial nucleotide variability that resulted in relatively restricted sets of amino acid sequences. Linkage of patients' treatment histories with longitudinal sequencing data showed that insert strains appeared during drug regimens containing ddI or ddC, with prior or concurrent AZT treatment. Drug susceptibility tests of recombinant patient isolates showed reduced susceptibility to nearly all nucleoside RT inhibitors. Site- directed mutagenesis studies confirmed the role of the inserts alone in conferring reduced susceptibility to most RT inhibitors. The addition of AZT-associated drug resistance mutations further increased the range and magnitude of resistance. These results establish that inserts, like point mutations, are selected in vivo during antiretroviral therapy and provide resistance to multiple nucleoside analogs.
M A Winters, K L Coolley, Y A Girard, D J Levee, H Hamdan, R W Shafer, D A Katzenstein, T C Merigan
The basic mechanisms underlying reactive arthritis and specifically the joint injury that follows intra-articular Chlamydia trachomatis infection have not been defined. The present study addresses this question through the development of an experimental model. Stable cell lines were generated from synoviocytes harvested from the knee joints of Lewis rats. The synoviocytes were cocultivated with C. trachomatis to allow invasion by the microbe and were then transferred by intra-articular injection into the knee joints of Lewis rats. The ensuing arthritis could be subdivided into an early phase (= 14 d) and a late phase. The early phase was characterized by intense, primarily neutrophilic, synovitis; accelerated cartilage injury; dissemination of Chlamydia to liver and spleen; and viable Chlamydia in the joints. The late phase was marked by mixed mononuclear lymphocyte infiltration in the joint; dysplastic cartilage injury and repair; absence of viable organisms; and development of a distinctive humoral response. Western blot analysis comparing reactive arthritis patients to the experimental model indicates that candidate arthritogenic chlamydial antigens are comparable between the two. This model demonstrates that an intense synovitis can be induced by this intracellular pathogen, and that chronic inflammation can persist well beyond the culture-positive phase. Furthermore, these data show that the synoviocyte is a suitable host cell for C. trachomatis and can function as a reservoir of microbial antigens sufficient to perpetuate joint injury.
R D Inman, B Chiu
Obstructive vascular disease is an important health problem in the industrialized world. Through a series of molecular genetic studies, we demonstrated that loss-of-function mutations in one elastin allele cause an inherited obstructive arterial disease, supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). To define the mechanism of elastin's effect, we generated mice hemizygous for the elastin gene (ELN +/-). Although ELN mRNA and protein were reduced by 50% in ELN +/- mice, arterial compliance at physiologic pressures was nearly normal. This discrepancy was explained by a paradoxical increase of 35% in the number of elastic lamellae and smooth muscle in ELN +/- arteries. Examination of humans with ELN hemizygosity revealed a 2. 5-fold increase in elastic lamellae and smooth muscle. Thus, ELN hemizygosity in mice and humans induces a compensatory increase in the number of rings of elastic lamellae and smooth muscle during arterial development. Humans are exquisitely sensitive to reduced ELN expression, developing profound arterial thickening and markedly increased risk of obstructive vascular disease.
D Y Li, G Faury, D G Taylor, E C Davis, W A Boyle, R P Mecham, P Stenzel, B Boak, M T Keating
Recent gene targeting studies indicate that the plasminogen system is implicated in cell migration and matrix degradation during arterial neointima formation and atherosclerotic aneurysm formation. This study examined whether plasmin proteolysis is involved in accelerated posttransplant arteriosclerosis (graft arterial disease). Donor carotid arteries from wild-type B10.A2R mice were transplanted into either plasminogen wild-type (Plg+/+) or homozygous plasminogen-deficient (Plg-/-) recipient mice with a genetic background of 75% C57BL/6 and 25% 129. Within 15 d after allograft transplantation, leukocytes and macrophages infiltrated the graft intima in Plg+/+ and Plg-/- recipient mice to a similar extent. In Plg+/+ recipients, the elastic laminae in the transplant media exhibited breaks through which macrophages infiltrated before smooth muscle cell proliferation, whereas in Plg-/- recipients, macrophages failed to infiltrate the transplant media which remained structurally more intact. After 45 d of transplantation, a multilayered smooth muscle cell-rich transplant neointima developed in Plg+/+ hosts, in contrast to Plg-/- recipients, in which the transplants contained a smaller intima, predominantly consisting of leukocytes, macrophages, and thrombus. Media necrosis, fragmentation of the elastic laminae, and adventitial remodeling were more pronounced in Plg+/+ than in Plg-/- recipient mice. Expression of the plasminogen activators (PA), urokinase-type PA (u-PA) and tissue-type PA (t-PA), and expression of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-12, and MMP-13, were significantly increased within 15 d of transplantation when cells actively migrate. These data indicate that plasmin proteolysis plays a major role in allograft arteriosclerosis by mediating elastin degradation, macrophage infiltration, media remodeling, medial smooth muscle cell migration, and formation of a neointima.
L Moons, C Shi, V Ploplis, E Plow, E Haber, D Collen, P Carmeliet
Normally a thin layer of mucus covers the surface of the gastrointestinal tract protecting the epithelial cells from their environment. In cystic fibrosis (CF), mucus accumulation is abnormally high, resulting in severe intestinal obstruction. The major structural components of mucus are large mucin glycoproteins. We determined specific mucin RNA and protein expression in the gastrointestinal tract of inbred CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) knockout (CF) mice and correlated expression with histological analyses of tissues. Mucins were detected histochemically using general carbohydrate stains and specific mucin antibodies. Mucin RNA levels were determined by reverse transcription-PCR. Comparisons were made between CF mice and control siblings, all maintained on a liquid diet after weaning. Analyses of the mucins Muc2, Muc3, and Muc5ac showed lower levels of RNA expression in the CF mice and similar levels of protein. Significantly, there was a sixfold increase in Muc1 RNA expression in the colon of the CF mouse and a moderate increase in Muc1 protein. Further, CF mice lacking Muc1 exhibited greatly diminished intestinal mucus obstruction when compared with Muc1- expressing CF mice and had better survival on solid food. We suggest that Muc1 plays an important role in the mucus obstructions observed in the gastrointestinal tract of the CFTR knockout mouse.
R R Parmley, S J Gendler
Local production of immunosuppressive cytokines will be one of the most suitable therapeutic strategies against organ-specific autoimmune diabetes. To establish such a new therapy, we constructed recombinant adenoviral vectors with inserted mIL-12p40 (Ad.IL-12p40) and mIL-10 (Ad.IL-10). Sufficient amounts of IL-12p40 and IL-10 were secreted by relevant adenovirus-transfected nonobese diabetic (NOD) islets. Shortly after transfection, 400 NOD islets transfected with Ad.IL-12p40 or Ad.IL-10 were transplanted under the renal capsule of a newly diabetic NOD mouse. NOD mice with IL-12p40-producing islet grafts kept normoglycemia in all of 14 grafted mice for over 4 wk after transplantation. In contrast, NOD mice with IL-10-producing islet grafts became diabetic in all of six grafted mice within 2 wk af-ter transplantation. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that local production of IL-12p40 led to the decrease of interferon-gamma and the augmentation of transforming growth factor-beta at the graft site. These results suggest that IL-12 plays an important role in the destruction of islet cells at the inflamed site of autoimmunity. Such a local blockade of IL-12 would be a useful gene therapy for human autoimmune diabetes.
H Yasuda, M Nagata, K Arisawa, R Yoshida, K Fujihira, N Okamoto, H Moriyama, M Miki, I Saito, H Hamada, K Yokono, M Kasuga
Epithelial cells that line the human intestinal mucosa are the initial site of host invasion by bacterial pathogens. The studies herein define apoptosis as a new category of intestinal epithelial cell response to bacterial infection. Human colon epithelial cells are shown to undergo apoptosis following infection with invasive enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. In contrast to the rapid onset of apoptosis seen after bacterial infection of mouse monocyte-macrophage cell lines, the commitment of human intestinal epithelial cell lines to undergo apoptosis is delayed for at least 6 h after bacterial infection, requires bacterial entry and replication, and the ensuing phenotypic expression of apoptosis is delayed for 12-18 h after bacterial entry. TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, which are produced as components of the intestinal epithelial cell proinflammatory program in the early period after bacterial invasion, play an important role in the later induction and regulation of the epithelial cell apoptotic program. Apoptosis in response to bacterial infection may function to delete infected and damaged epithelial cells and restore epithelial cell growth regulation and epithelial integrity that are altered during the course of enteric infection. The delay in onset of epithelial cell apoptosis after bacterial infection may be important both to the host and the invading pathogen since it provides sufficient time for epithelial cells to generate signals important for the activation of mucosal inflammation and concurrently allows invading bacteria time to adapt to the intracellular environment before invading deeper mucosal layers.
J M Kim, L Eckmann, T C Savidge, D C Lowe, T Witthöft, M F Kagnoff
In this study, we evaluated if increased sympathetic stimulation is an essential requirement for the development of neurally mediated syncope (NMS) by manipulating overall sympathetic outflow in subjects susceptible to tilt-induced syncope. Eight previously characterized patients with recurrent NMS (five females and three males; 34+/-2 yr) were recruited from the Vanderbilt Syncope Unit and eight age-matched controls underwent initial administration of clonidine (CLO) or yohimbine (YHO). This was done, prospectively, to determine doses of these agents that would increase or decrease plasma norepinephrine levels by >/= 30%. On a different day, in all subjects we determined intraarterial blood pressure, EKG and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) both supine and during upright tilt. After this, subjects randomly received either CLO or YHO, and 3 h later another tilt was performed. After 1 wk, a similar procedure with the other drug was performed. During the two basal tilts, all the control subjects completed the study, whereas all the NMS patients developed syncope. Reduction in sympathetic tone by CLO resulted in a decreased tolerance to tilt in three out of eight controls and in all the NMS patients. In contrast, YHO not only increased basal plasma NorEpi levels and MSNA, but also prevented syncope in seven out of eight patients. In a selected population of patients, increased sympathetic activity is not a prerequisite for the development of syncope. Yohimbine-induced enhancement of sympathetic tone in patients with NMS improves orthostatic tolerance and raises the possibility that this drug may be a useful agent in the treatment of NMS.
R Mosqueda-Garcia, R Fernandez-Violante, J Tank, M Snell, G Cunningham, R Furlan
The immunodominant antimitochondrial antibody response in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is directed against the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2). Based on our earlier observations regarding peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) T cell epitopes, we reasoned that a comparative analysis of the precursor frequencies of PDC-E2 163-176-specific T cells isolated from PBMC, regional hepatic lymph nodes, and from the liver of PBC patients would provide insight regarding the role of T cells in PBC. Results showed a disease-specific 100-150-fold increase in the precursor frequency of PDC-E2 163-176-specific T cells in the hilar lymph nodes and liver when compared with PBMC from PBC patients. Interestingly, autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies from PBC patients both recognize the same dominant epitope. In addition, we demonstrated cross-reactivity of PDC-E2 peptide 163-176-specific T cell clones with PDC-E2 peptide 36-49 and OGDC-E2 peptide 100-113 thereby identifying a common T cell epitope "motif" ExETDK. The peptide 163-176-specific T cell clones also reacted with purified native PDC-E2, suggesting that this epitope is not a cryptic determinant. These data provide evidence for a major role for PDC-E2 peptide 163-176 and/or peptides bearing a similar motif in the pathogenesis of PBC.
S Shimoda, J Van de Water, A Ansari, M Nakamura, H Ishibashi, R L Coppel, J Lake, E B Keeffe, T E Roche, M E Gershwin
Individuals with systemic autoantibody-mediated diseases such as lupus have polyclonal T and B cell activation. Yet, autoantibody production is restricted to certain autoantigens. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. We propose three potential mechanisms by which autoreactive helper T cell responses diversify to become polyclonal, yet are restricted to certain antigens. First, using a model where self-Ig peptides spontaneously activate T cells and modulate disease in lupus mice, we demonstrate that the numbers of autoantibody-augmenting T helper peptides increased across the Ig molecule as mice aged ("intramolecular determinant spreading"). Secondly, a single T cell hybridoma established from a (NZB x NZW)F1 mouse immunized with one self-Ig peptide recognized several Ig-derived determinants, which had little sequence homology with the immunizing peptide. Such determinant degeneracy can lead to polyclonality. To explore a mechanism for restriction to certain autoantigens, a protein database search was done for homologies with sequences of selected stimulatory Ig peptides. Identical sequences of such determinants were not found in murine proteins other than Ig. These occurred infrequently in nonautoantibody Ig, but quite commonly in lupus-related autoantibodies such as antibodies to DNA, cardiolipin, and erythrocytes. Thus, determinant spreading and degenerate recognition in T cells coupled with recurring use of T cell determinant sequences among autoantibodies result in polyclonality that is restricted to certain autoantigens.
R R Singh, B H Hahn, B P Tsao, F M Ebling
Central to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is the ability of estrogen deficiency to increase osteoclast formation by enhancing stromal cell production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). We report that stromal cells from ovariectomized mice exhibit increased casein kinase II-dependent phosphorylation of the nuclear protein Egr-1. Phosphorylated Egr-1 binds less avidly to the transcriptional activator Sp-1 and the resulting higher levels of free Sp-1 stimulate transactivation of the M-CSF gene. Estrogen replacement fails to block M-CSF mRNA expression and osteoclast formation in ovariectomized mice lacking Egr-1, confirming the critical role played by this transcription factor in mediating the antiosteoclastogenic effects of estrogen. Thus, by downregulating formation of a novel Egr-1/Sp-1 complex in stromal cells, estrogen deficiency results in enhanced levels of free Sp-1 and increased M-CSF gene expression and osteoclast formation.
S Srivastava, M N Weitzmann, R B Kimble, M Rizzo, M Zahner, J Milbrandt, F P Ross, R Pacifici
Although the therapeutic actions of glucocorticoids are largely attributed to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects, they have been implicated in enhancing tissue and cellular protection. In this study, we demonstrate that dexamethasone significantly enhances viability of IEC-18 rat small intestinal cells against oxidant-induced stress in a dose-dependent fashion. This protective action is mediated by induction of hsp72, the major inducible heat shock protein in intestinal epithelial cells. Dexamethasone stimulates a time- and dose-dependent response in hsp72 protein expression that parallels its effects on cell viability. Furthermore, the induction of hsp72 is tissue dependent, as nonintestinal epithelioid HeLa cells show differential induction of hsp72 expression in response to the same dexamethasone treatment. Antisense hsp72 cDNA transfection of IEC-18 cells abolishes the dexamethasone-induced hsp72 response, without significantly affecting constitutive expression of its homologue, hsc73. Dexamethasone treatment also significantly induces hsp72 protein expression in rat intestinal mucosal cells in vivo. These data demonstrate that glucocorticoids protect intestinal epithelial cells against oxidant-induced stress by inducing hsp72.
S Urayama, M W Musch, J Retsky, M B Madonna, D Straus, E B Chang
IL-12 is essential for T helper 1 (Th1) development and inhibits the induction of Th2 responses. Atopic diseases, which are characterized by Th2 responses, are associated with the overproduction of histamine. Here we present evidence that histamine, at physiological concentrations, strongly inhibits human IL-12 p40 and p70 mRNA and protein production by human monocytes. The use of specific histamine receptor antagonists reveals that this inhibition is mediated via the H2 receptor and induction of intracellular cAMP. The inhibition of IL-12 production is independent of IL-10 and IFN-gamma. The observation that histamine strongly reduces the production of the Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12 implies a positive feedback mechanism for the development of Th2 responses in atopic patients.
T C van der Pouw Kraan, A Snijders, L C Boeije, E R de Groot, A E Alewijnse, R Leurs, L A Aarden
In cultured renal cells, hypertonicity activates multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and enhances the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). In rats, 24 h water restriction increased mean urinary osmolality (Uosm) from 2, 179+/-153 mOsm/kg to 2,944+/-294 mOsm/kg (P < 0.001) and was associated with significant (P < 0.05) increases in the papillary activity of c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) by 22%, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) by 49%, and p38 MAPK by 15%. Conversely, 24 h of water-loading (Uosm 473+/-33 mOsm/kg) caused suppression of JNK activity by 43% (P < 0.001), ERK by 39% (P < 0.05), and p38 MAPK by 26% (P < 0.05). No such modulation was observed in the isotonic cortex. c-Jun phosphorylation was decreased in papilla from water-loaded rats by 45% versus controls. Expression of Hsp 110, inducible Hsp 70, and Hsp 25 was greater in the hyperosmotic papilla than the isosmotic cortex but was not affected by the animal's hydration state. In cultured inner medullary collecting duct cells, HSP expression was maximal at 500 mOsm/kg, while activation of JNK continued to increase. We conclude that under basal conditions of hydration, these HSPs are maximally expressed in the hypertonic inner medulla, while the activation of all three members of the MAPK family approaches but is not maximal.
P A Wojtaszek, L E Heasley, T Berl
Donor T cell responses to host alloantigen are known predictors for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); however, the effect of donor responsiveness to an inflammatory stimulus such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on GVHD severity has not been investigated. To examine this, we used mouse strains that differ in their sensitivity to LPS as donors in an experimental bone marrow transplant (BMT) system. Lethally irradiated (C3FeB6)F1 hosts received BMT from either LPS-sensitive (LPS-s) C3Heb/Fej, or LPS-resistant (LPS-r) C3H/ Hej donors. Mice receiving LPS-r BMT developed significantly less GVHD as measured by mortality and clinical score compared with recipients of LPS-s BMT, a finding that was associated with significant decreases in intestinal histopathology and serum LPS and TNF-alpha levels. When donor T cell responses to host antigens were measured, no differences in proliferation, serum IFN-gamma levels, splenic T cell expansion, or CTL activity were observed after LPS-r or LPS-s BMT. Systemic neutralization of TNF-alpha from day -2 to +6 resulted in decreased intestinal pathology, and serum LPS levels and increased survival after BMT compared with control mice receiving Ig. We conclude that donor resistance to endotoxin reduces the development of acute GVHD by attenuating early intestinal damage mediated by TNFalpha. These data suggest that the responsiveness of donor accessory cells to LPS may be an important risk factor for acute GVHD severity independent of T cell responses to host antigens.
K R Cooke, G R Hill, J M Crawford, D Bungard, Y S Brinson, J Delmonte Jr, J L Ferrara