The apo B gene is expressed in the human heart and in the hearts of human apo B transgenic mice generated with large genomic clones spanning the human apo B gene. [35S]Methionine metabolic labeling experiments demonstrated that apo B100-containing lipoproteins are secreted by human heart tissue and by human apo B transgenic and nontransgenic mouse heart tissue. Density gradient analysis revealed that most of the secreted heart lipoproteins were LDLs, even when the labeling experiments were performed in the presence of tetrahydrolipstatin, an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Western blots with a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein) (MTP)-specific antiserum demonstrated that the microsomes of the heart contain the 97-kD subunit of MTP (the subunit involved in the transfer of lipids and assembly of lipoproteins). Metabolic labeling of mouse heart tissue in the presence of BMS-192951, an MTP inhibitor, abolished lipoprotein secretion by the heart but resulted in the secretion of two apo B proteolytic fragments (80 and 120 kD), which were found in the bottom fraction of the density gradient. These studies reveal that the heart, and not just the liver and intestine, secretes apo B-containing lipoproteins. We speculate that lipoprotein secretion by the heart represents a mechanism for removing excess lipids from the heart.
J Borén, M M Véniant, S G Young
13C NMR spectroscopy was used to assess flux rates of hepatic glycogen synthase and phosphorylase in overnight-fasted subjects under one of four hypoglucagonemic conditions: protocol I, hyperglycemic (approximately 10 mM) -hypoinsulinemia (approximately 40 pM); protocol II, euglycemic (approximately 5 mM) -hyperinsulinemia (approximately 400 pM); protocol III, hyperglycemic (approximately 10 mM) -hyperinsulinemia (approximately 400 pM); and protocol IV; euglycemic (approximately 5 mM) -hypoinsulinemia (approximately 40 pM). Inhibition of net hepatic glycogenolysis occurred in both protocols I and II compared to protocol IV but via a different mechanism. Inhibition of net hepatic glycogenolysis occurred in protocol I mostly due to decreased glycogen phosphorylase flux, whereas in protocol II inhibition of net hepatic glycogenolysis occurred exclusively through the activation of glycogen synthase flux. Phosphorylase flux was unaltered, resulting in extensive glycogen cycling. Relatively high rates of net hepatic glycogen synthesis were observed in protocol III due to combined stimulation of glycogen synthase flux and inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase flux. In conclusion, under hypoglucagonemic conditions: (a) hyperglycemia, per se, inhibits net hepatic glycogenolysis primarily through inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase flux; (b) hyperinsulinemia, per se, inhibits net hepatic glycogenolysis primarily through stimulation of glycogen synthase flux; (c) inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase and the activation of glycogen synthase are not necessarily coupled and coordinated in a reciprocal fashion; and (d) promotion of hepatic glycogen cycling may be the principal mechanism by which insulin inhibits net hepatic glycogenolysis and endogenous glucose production in humans under euglycemic conditions.
K F Petersen, D Laurent, D L Rothman, G W Cline, G I Shulman
Thermal stressing of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- rich culinary oils according to routine frying or cooking practices generates high levels of cytotoxic aldehydic products (predominantly trans-2-alkenals, trans,trans-alka-2,4-dienals, cis,trans-alka-2, 4-dienals, and n-alkanals), species arising from the fragmentation of conjugated hydroperoxydiene precursors. In this investigation we demonstrate that typical trans-2-alkenal compounds known to be produced from the thermally induced autoxidation of PUFAs are readily absorbed from the gut into the systemic circulation in vivo, metabolized (primarily via the addition of glutathione across their electrophilic carbon-carbon double bonds), and excreted in the urine as C-3 mercapturate conjugates in rats. Since such aldehydic products are damaging to human health, the results obtained from our investigations indicate that the dietary ingestion of thermally, autoxidatively stressed PUFA-rich culinary oils promotes the induction, development, and progression of cardiovascular diseases.
M Grootveld, M D Atherton, A N Sheerin, J Hawkes, D R Blake, T E Richens, C J Silwood, E Lynch, A W Claxson
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are linked with the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are increased in ischemic and nonischemic diabetic retina, and VEGF is required for the development of retinal and iris neovascularization. Moreover, VEGF alone can induce much of the concomitant pathology of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we found that AGEs increased VEGF mRNA levels in the ganglion, inner nuclear, and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layers of the rat retina. In vitro, AGEs increased VEGF mRNA and secreted protein in human RPE and bovine vascular smooth muscle cells. The AGE-induced increases in VEGF expression were dose- and time-dependent, inhibited by antioxidants, and additive with hypoxia. Use of an anti-VEGF antibody blocked the capillary endothelial cell proliferation induced by the conditioned media of AGE-treated cells. AGEs may participate in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy through their ability to increase retinal VEGF gene expression.
M Lu, M Kuroki, S Amano, M Tolentino, K Keough, I Kim, R Bucala, A P Adamis
To begin to dissect atherogenesis as a complex genetic disorder affected by genetic makeup and environment, we have (a) generated a reproducible mouse model of neointimal growth; (b) evaluated the effect of disruption of a single gene, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, believed to be central to intimal growth, and (c) examined the modifying effects of gender and pregnancy upon the vascular response. Cuff placement around the femoral artery causes reproducible intimal growth. We assessed the response to injury by quantitative morphometry, measuring the intimal to medial (I/M) volume ratio. In wild-type mice, cuff placement causes pronounced intimal proliferation without affecting the media, resulting in I/M ratios of 31% (SV129 males) and 27% (C57BL/6 males). eNOS mutant male mice have a much greater degree of intimal growth (I/M ratio of 70%). Female mice show less intimal response than do males, although eNOS mutant female mice still have more response than do wild-type females. Most dramatic, however, is the effect of pregnancy, which essentially abolishes the intimal response to injury, even overriding the effect of eNOS mutation. We conclude that eNOS deficiency is a genetic predisposition to intimal proliferation that is enhanced by male gender, and that may be overridden by pregnancy.
M Moroi, L Zhang, T Yasuda, R Virmani, H K Gold, M C Fishman, P L Huang
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a hypermetabolic disease triggered by volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine in genetically predisposed individuals. Nine point mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR) gene have so far been identified and shown to correlate with the MH-susceptible phenotype, yet direct evidence linking abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis to mutations in the RYR1 cDNA has been obtained for few mutations. In this report, we show for the first time that cultured human skeletal muscle cells derived from MH-susceptible individuals exhibit a half-maximal halothane concentration causing an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration which is twofold lower than that of cells derived from MH-negative individuals. We also present evidence demonstrating that overexpression of wild-type RYR1 in cells obtained from MH-susceptible individuals does not restore the MH-negative phenotype, as far as Ca2+ transients elicited by halothane are concerned; on the other hand, overexpression of a mutated RYR1 Arg163Cys Ca2+ channel in muscle cells obtained from MH-negative individuals conveys hypersensitivity to halothane. Finally, our results show that the resting Ca2+ concentration of cultured skeletal muscle cells from MH-negative and MH-susceptible individuals is not significantly different.
K Censier, A Urwyler, F Zorzato, S Treves
Multiple isoforms of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) are expressed at high levels in gastric epithelium, but the physiological role of individual isoforms is unclear. To study the function of NHE2, which is expressed in mucous, zymogenic, and parietal cells, we prepared mice with a null mutation in the NHE2 gene. Homozygous null mutants exhibit no overt disease phenotype, but the cellular composition of the oxyntic mucosa of the gastric corpus is altered, with parietal and zymogenic cells reduced markedly in number. Net acid secretion in null mutants is reduced slightly relative to wild-type levels just before weaning and is abolished in adult animals. Although mature parietal cells are observed, and appear morphologically to be engaged in active acid secretion, many of the parietal cells are in various stages of degeneration. These results indicate that NHE2 is not required for acid secretion by the parietal cell, but is essential for its long-term viability. This suggests that the unique sensitivity of NHE2 to inhibition by extracellular H+, which would allow upregulation of its activity by the increased interstitial alkalinity that accompanies acid secretion, might enable this isoform to play a specialized role in maintaining the long-term viability of the parietal cell.
P J Schultheis, L L Clarke, P Meneton, M Harline, G P Boivin, G Stemmermann, J J Duffy, T Doetschman, M L Miller, G E Shull
Aldosterone is a major regulator of salt balance and blood pressure, exerting its effects via the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). To analyze the regulatory mechanisms controlling tissue-specific expression of the human MR (hMR) in vivo, we have developed transgenic mouse models expressing the SV40 large T antigen (TAg) under the control of each of the two promoters of the hMR gene (P1 or P2). Unexpectedly, all five P1-TAg founder animals died prematurely from voluminous malignant liposarcomas originating from brown adipose tissue, as evidenced by the expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein ucp1, indicating that the proximal P1 promoter was transcriptionally active in brown adipocytes. No such hibernoma occurred in P2-TAg transgenic mice. Appropriate tissue-specific usage of P1 promoter sequences was confirmed by demonstrating the presence of endogenous MR in both neoplastic and normal brown adipose tissue. Several cell lines were derived from hibernomas; among them, the T37i cells can undergo terminal differentiation into brown adipocytes, which remain capable of expressing ucp1 upon adrenergic or retinoic acid stimulation. These cells possess endogenous functional MR, thus providing a new model to explore molecular mechanisms of mineralocorticoid action. Our data broaden the known functions of aldosterone and suggest a potential role for MR in adipocyte differentiation and regulation of thermogenesis.
M C Zennaro, D Le Menuet, S Viengchareun, F Walker, D Ricquier, M Lombès
The capacity of endothelial cells (EC) to produce IL-15 and the capacity of IL-15 to influence transendothelial migration of T cells was examined. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressed both IL-15 mRNA and protein. Moreover, endothelial-derived IL-15 enhanced transendothelial migration of T cells as evidenced by the inhibition of this process by blocking monoclonal antibodies to IL-15. IL-15 enhanced transendothelial migration of T cells by activating the binding capacity of the integrin adhesion molecule LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) and also increased T cell motility. In addition, IL-15 induced expression of the early activation molecule CD69. The importance of IL-15 in regulating migration of T cells in vivo was documented by its capacity to enhance accumulation of adoptively transferred human T cells in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue engrafted into immune deficient SCID mice. These results demonstrate that EC produce IL-15 and imply that endothelial IL-15 plays a critical role in stimulation of T cells to extravasate into inflammatory tissue.
N Oppenheimer-Marks, R I Brezinschek, M Mohamadzadeh, R Vita, P E Lipsky
While an age-associated diminution in myocardial contractile response to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation has been widely demonstrated to occur in the context of increased levels of plasma catecholamines, some critical mechanisms that govern beta-AR signaling must still be examined in aged hearts. Specifically, the contribution of beta-AR subtypes (beta1 versus beta2) to the overall reduction in contractile response with aging is unknown. Additionally, whether G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), which mediate receptor desensitization, or adenylyl cyclase inhibitory G proteins (Gi) are increased with aging has not been examined. Both these inhibitory mechanisms are upregulated in chronic heart failure, a condition also associated with diminished beta-AR responsiveness and increased circulatory catecholamines. In this study, the contractile responses to both beta1-AR and beta2-AR stimulation were examined in rat ventricular myocytes of a broad age range (2, 8, and 24 mo). A marked age-associated depression in contractile response to both beta-AR subtype stimulation was observed. This was associated with a nonselective reduction in the density of both beta-AR subtypes and a reduction in membrane adenylyl cyclase response to both beta-AR subtype agonists, NaF or forskolin. However, the age-associated diminutions in contractile responses to either beta1-AR or beta2-AR stimulation were not rescued by inhibiting Gi with pertussis toxin treatment. Further, the abundance or activity of beta-adrenergic receptor kinase, GRK5, or Gi did not significantly change with aging. Thus, we conclude that the positive inotropic effects of both beta1- and beta2-AR stimulation are markedly decreased with aging in rat ventricular myocytes and this is accompanied by decreases in both beta-AR subtype densities and a reduction in membrane adenylate cyclase activity. Neither GRKs nor Gi proteins appear to contribute to the age-associated reduction in cardiac beta-AR responsiveness.
R P Xiao, E D Tomhave, D J Wang, X Ji, M O Boluyt, H Cheng, E G Lakatta, W J Koch
Interindividual differences in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels reflect both environmental variation and genetic polymorphism, but the specific genes involved and their relative contributions to the variance in LDL-C are not known. In this study we investigated the relationship between plasma LDL-C concentrations and three genes with pivotal roles in LDL metabolism: the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7). Analysis of 150 nuclear families indicated statistically significant linkage between plasma LDL-C concentrations and CYP7, but not LDLR or APOB. Further sibling pair analyses using individuals with high plasma LDL-C concentrations as probands indicated that the CYP7 locus was linked to high plasma LDL-C, but not to low plasma LDL-C concentrations. This finding was replicated in an independent sample. DNA sequencing revealed two linked polymorphisms in the 5' flanking region of CYP7. The allele defined by these polymorphisms was associated with increased plasma LDL-C concentrations, both in sibling pairs and in unrelated individuals. Taken together, these findings indicate that polymorphism in CYP7 contributes to heritable variation in plasma LDL-C concentrations. Common polymorphisms in LDLR and APOB account for little of the heritable variation in plasma LDL-C concentrations in the general population.
J Wang, D J Freeman, S M Grundy, D M Levine, R Guerra, J C Cohen
Pit, Oct, Unc (POU) homeo domain transcription factors have been implicated in various developmental processes, including cell division, differentiation, specification, and survival of specific cell types. Although expression of the transcription factor Oct-6 in oligodendroglia is confined to the promyelin stage and is downregulated at the myelin stage of development, the effect of Oct-6 overexpression on oligodendrocyte development has not been established. Here we show that transgenic animals overexpressing Oct-6 at late oligodendrocyte development develop a severe neurologic syndrome characterized by action tremors, recurrent seizures, and premature death. Axons in the central nervous system of Oct-6 transgenics were hypomyelinated, hypermyelinated, or dysmyelinated, and ultrastructural analyses suggested that myelin formation was premature. The vulnerability of developing oligodendroglia to Oct-6 deregulation provides evidence that the POU factor may play a direct role in myelin disease pathogenesis in the mammalian CNS.
N A Jensen, K M Pedersen, J E Celis, M J West
Similar to pancreatic islets, submandibular glands are more rapidly infiltrated in female NOD mice than in males. The present comparative analysis of cellular infiltrations in lacrimal glands, however, revealed the opposite finding. At 12 wk of age, approximately 25% of male lacrimal tissue area is infiltrated, whereas age-matched female NOD mice still lack major signs of inflammation. T cells predominate in early stages of invasion, but B cells accumulate promptly in more advanced stages, and ultimately dominate over T cells. Dacryoadenitis is promoted by sex hormones, as suggested by the reduced infiltrations seen in orchidectomized NOD males (P < 0.01). It is also controlled by the local environment provided by the lacrimal tissue. Splenocytes from 4- and 20-wk-old female NOD mice cause massive lesions upon adoptive transfer into NOD male recipients while, conversely, female recipients develop barely any histological sign of infiltration, even after transfer of splenocytes from 20-wk-old donor males. These observations provide strong evidence for a dacryoadenitis-promoting role of male gonadal hormones in NOD mice, a finding that contrasts the known androgen-mediated protective effects on insulitis and submandibulitis in the same strain and on dacryoadenitis in other animal models of Sjögren's syndrome.
R E Hunger, C Carnaud, I Vogt, C Mueller
Apert syndrome, associated with fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2 mutations, is characterized by premature fusion of cranial sutures. We analyzed proliferation and differentiation of calvaria cells derived from Apert infants and fetuses with FGFR-2 mutations. Histological analysis revealed premature ossification, increased extent of subperiosteal bone formation, and alkaline phosphatase- positive preosteoblastic cells in Apert fetal calvaria compared with age-matched controls. Preosteoblastic calvaria cells isolated from Apert infants and fetuses showed normal cell growth in basal conditions or in response to exogenous FGF-2. In contrast, the number of alkaline phosphatase- positive calvaria cells was fourfold higher than normal in mutant fetal calvaria cells with the most frequent Apert FGFR-2 mutation (Ser252Trp), suggesting increased maturation rate of cells in the osteoblastic lineage. Biochemical and Northern blot analyses also showed that the expression of alkaline phosphatase and type 1 collagen were 2-10-fold greater than normal in mutant fetal calvaria cells. The in vitro production of mineralized matrix formed by immortalized mutant fetal calvaria cells cultured in aggregates was also increased markedly compared with control immortalized fetal calvaria cells. The results show that Apert FGFR-2 mutations lead to an increase in the number of precursor cells that enter the osteogenic pathway, leading ultimately to increased subperiosteal bone matrix formation and premature calvaria ossification during fetal development, which establishes a connection between the altered genotype and cellular phenotype in Apert syndromic craniosynostosis.
A Lomri, J Lemonnier, M Hott, N de Parseval, E Lajeunie, A Munnich, D Renier, P J Marie
Recently introduced statistical tools capable of discerning differences between the pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and that of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) could be valuable in understanding ovulation and menopause, and ultimately in making diagnostic decisions and treating infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome. We assessed the validity and scope of the hypothesis that FSH is secreted more irregularly than LH in ewes and fertile women. We compared secretory irregularity of LH to that of FSH in both ovariectomized ewes (n = 7) and women of proven fertility (n = 5) during the follicular and luteal phases of their reproductive cycles. In each sheep, time series from both hypophyseal portal blood (HPB) and peripheral blood were evaluated in 72 samples obtained every 5 min; in each human, both luteal and follicular periods were studied in 192 samples obtained every 7.5 min. To quantify serial irregularity, we used approximate entropy (ApEn), a scale- and model-independent statistic. FSH secretion was consistently more irregular than that of LH in each subject. For sheep HPB, ApEn(FSH) = 1.415+/-0.097 was larger than ApEn(LH) = 0. 822+/-0.213, P < 0.0001 (mean+/-SD, paired t test). This difference persisted peripherally: ApEn(FSHper) = 1.431+/-0.101 > ApEn(LHper) = 1.252+/-0.086, P = 0.024. In women, ApEn(FSH) = 1.467+/-0.217 > ApEn(LH) = 0.923+/- 0.305, P < 0.0001. ApEn(FSH) > ApEn(LH) in 100% of women (peripheral) and sheep HPB. Secretion during the follicular phase was more irregular than during the luteal phase for both FSH and LH (P < 0.01). LH mean level secretion showed a wake/sleep difference in women, P < 0.005, with higher values awake. The consistency and statistical significance of these findings suggest that this LH/FSH difference may be broadly based within higher mammals. Ranges of normative and abnormal regularity values of LH, FSH, and their difference can be used in a number of settings, both (currently) research and (potentially ultimately) clinical milieus.
S M Pincus, V Padmanabhan, W Lemon, J Randolph, A Rees Midgley
Muscle crush injury is often complicated by hemodynamic shock, electrolyte disorders, and myoglobinuric renal failure. In this study, we examined the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) system in the development of muscle damage in an experimental model of crush injury induced by exertion of standardized mechanical pressure on tibialis muscle of rat. The intact limb served as a control. Four days after injury, the crushed muscle was characterized by extreme capillary vasodilatation as demonstrated by histological morphometric analysis. These changes were accompanied by muscle hyperperfusion as evaluated by measurements of femoral blood flow (ultrasonic flowmetry) and capillary blood flow (laser-doppler flowmetry). Treatment with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, largely decreased the hyperperfusion. Furthermore, the expression of the different NOS isoforms, assessed by reverse transcription-PCR and immunoreactive levels, determined by Western blot, revealed a remarkable induction of the inducible NOS in the crushed limb. Similarly, endothelial NOS mRNA increased gradually after the induction of muscle damage. In contrast, the major muscular NOS, i.e., neuronal isoform remained unchanged. In line with the alterations in the mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed parallel changes in the immunoreactive levels of the various NOS. These findings indicate that muscle crush is associated with activation of the NO system mainly due to enhancement of iNOS. This may contribute to NO-dependent extreme vasodilatation in the injured muscle and aggravate the hypovolemic shock after crush injury.
I Rubinstein, Z Abassi, R Coleman, F Milman, J Winaver, O S Better
To examine the influence of the putative satiety factor (GLP-1) on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, we used GT1-7 cells as a model of neuronal luteinizing hormone- releasing hormone (LHRH) release. GLP-1 caused a concentration-dependent increase in LHRH release from GT1-7 cells. Specific, saturable GLP-1 binding sites were demonstrated on these cells. The binding of [125I]GLP-1 was time-dependent and consistent with a single binding site (Kd = 0.07+/-0.016 nM; binding capacity = 160+/-11 fmol/mg protein). The specific GLP-1 receptor agonists, exendin-3 and exendin-4, also showed high affinity (Ki = 0.3+/-0.05 and 0.32+/-0.06 nM, respectively) as did the antagonist exendin-(9-39) (Ki = 0.98+/-0.24 nM). At concentrations that increased LHRH release, GLP-1 (0.5-10 nM) also caused an increase in intracellular cAMP in GT1-7 cells (10 nM GLP-1: 7.66+/-0.4 vs. control: 0.23+/-0.02 nmol/mg protein; P < 0.001). Intracerebroventricular injection of GLP-1 at a single concentration (10 microg) produced a prompt increase in the plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in male rats (GLP-1: 1.09+/-0.11 vs. saline: 0.69+/-0.06 ng/ml; P < 0.005). GLP-1 levels in the hypothalami of 48-h-fasted male rats showed a decrease, indicating a possible association of the satiety factor with the low luteinizing hormone levels in animals with a negative energy balance.
S A Beak, M M Heath, C J Small, D G Morgan, M A Ghatei, A D Taylor, J C Buckingham, S R Bloom, D M Smith
The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of the interaction between CD40 and its ligand (CD40L) to antigen-induced airways inflammatory responses. To this end, we used a model involving ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization followed by OVA aerosol challenge in CD40L knockout (KO) mice. OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 were detected in the serum of the sensitized control, but not in CD40L-KO mice. After antigen challenge, sensitized control mice developed airway inflammation that was primarily eosinophilic. This inflammatory response was dramatically reduced in CD40L-KO mice. In contrast, similar numbers of eosinophils were observed in both the bone marrow and the peripheral blood in the sensitized controls and mutant strains after antigen challenge. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these findings, we examined levels of the cytokines IL-5, IL-4, and TNFalpha in both bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum. Similar levels of IL-5 were detected in BAL and serum of control and CD40L-KO mice; however, negligible levels of IL-4 in BAL and serum and of TNFalpha in BAL were detected in CD40L-KO mice when compared with control mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that endothelial cell expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in OVA-sensitized and -challenged CD40L-KO mice was, as detected by immunohistochemistry, markedly decreased compared with that observed in similarly treated control mice. In addition, we locally overexpressed IL-4 and TNFalpha by using an adenoviral (Ad)-mediated gene transfer approach. Intranasal administration of either Ad/TNFalpha or Ad/IL-4 into OVA-sensitized and -challenged CD40L-KO mice did not reconstitute airway eosinophilia. However, concurrent administration of Ad/TNFalpha and Ad/IL-4 upregulated endothelial expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and resulted in full reconstitution of the inflammatory response in the airways. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of the CD40-CD40L costimulatory pathway in the full expression of the inflammatory response in the airways.
X F Lei, Y Ohkawara, M R Stämpfli, C Mastruzzo, R A Marr, D Snider, Z Xing, M Jordana
Troglitazone (CS-045) is one of the thiazolidinediones that activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), which is expressed primarily in adipose tissues. To elucidate the mechanism by which troglitazone relieves insulin resistance in vivo, we studied its effects on the white adipose tissues of an obese animal model (obese Zucker rat). Administration of troglitazone for 15 d normalized mild hyperglycemia and marked hyperinsulinemia in these rats. Plasma triglyceride level was decreased by troglitazone in both obese and lean rats. Troglitazone did not change the total weight of white adipose tissues but increased the number of small adipocytes (< 2,500 micron2) approximately fourfold in both retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese rats. It also decreased the number of large adipocytes (> 5,000 micron2) by approximately 50%. In fact, the percentage of apoptotic nuclei was approximately 2.5-fold higher in the troglitazone-treated retroperitoneal white adipose tissue than control. Concomitantly, troglitazone normalized the expression levels of TNF-alpha which were elevated by 2- and 1.4-fold in the retroperitoneal and mesenteric white adipose tissues of the obese rats, respectively. Troglitazone also caused a dramatic decrease in the expression levels of leptin, which were increased by 4-10-fold in the white adipose tissues of obese rats. These results suggest that the primary action of troglitazone may be to increase the number of small adipocytes in white adipose tissues, presumably via PPARgamma. The increased number of small adipocytes and the decreased number of large adipocytes in white adipose tissues of troglitazone-treated obese rats appear to be an important mechanism by which increased expression levels of TNF-alpha and higher levels of plasma lipids are normalized, leading to alleviation of insulin resistance.
A Okuno, H Tamemoto, K Tobe, K Ueki, Y Mori, K Iwamoto, K Umesono, Y Akanuma, T Fujiwara, H Horikoshi, Y Yazaki, T Kadowaki
One of the hallmarks of SLE is the loss of tolerance to chromatin. The genes and mechanisms that trigger this loss of tolerance remain unknown. Our genetic studies in the NZM2410 lupus strain have implicated genomic intervals on chromosomes 1 (Sle1), 4 (Sle2), and 7 (Sle3) as conferring strong lupus susceptibility. Interestingly, B6 mice that are congenic for Sle1 (B6.NZMc1) have elevated IgG antichromatin Abs. This study explores the antinuclear antibody fine specificities and underlying cellular defects in these mice. On the B6 background, Sle1 by itself is sufficient to generate a robust, spontaneous antichromatin Ab response, staining Hep-2 nuclei homogeneously, and reacting primarily with H2A/H2B/DNA subnucleosomes. This targeted immune response peaks at 7-9 mo of age, affects both sexes with equally high penetrance (> 75%), and interestingly, does not "spread" to other subnucleosomal chromatin components. Sle1 also leads to an expanded pool of histone-reactive T cells, which may have a role in driving the anti-H2A/H2B/DNA B cells. However, these mice do not exhibit any generalized immunological defects or quantitative aberrations in lymphocyte apoptosis. We hypothesize that Sle1 may lead to the presentation of chromatin in an immunogenic fashion, or directly impact tolerance of chromatin-specific B cells.
C Mohan, E Alas, L Morel, P Yang, E K Wakeland
This study was undertaken to determine if prolonged daily subcutaneous administration of ultra low dose IL-2 could influence the constitutive endogenous production of a type 1 (IFN-gamma) cytokine in patients with AIDS or AIDS-associated malignancies. Using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay, we demonstrate that daily administration of one type 1 cytokine, IL-2, for 3 mo increases significantly the constitutive endogenous gene expression of another type 1 cytokine, IFN-gamma, in vivo. The predominant source of IFN-gamma appears to be IL-2-expanded natural killer cells and CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, PBMC obtained from these patients during IL-2 therapy showed normalization of a profound deficit in IFN-gamma protein production after stimulation with extracts from infectious agents in vitro. Our data suggest that prolonged exogenous administration of a type 1 cytokine in a nontoxic fashion to patients with AIDS and AIDS-associated malignancies can enhance significantly the endogenous type 1 cytokine profile in vivo. Consequently, ultra low dose IL-2 therapy has the potential to improve the immunodeficient hosts' immune response to infectious pathogens that require IFN-gamma for clearance.
V P Khatri, T A Fehniger, R A Baiocchi, F Yu, M H Shah, D S Schiller, M Gould, R T Gazzinelli, Z P Bernstein, M A Caligiuri
Previous studies have shown that triggering multiple myeloma (MM) cells via CD40 induces IL-6-mediated autocrine growth as well as increased expression of cell surface adhesion molecules including CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, and CD18. In this study, we generated the 5E2 mAb which targets an antigen that is induced upon CD40 ligand (CD40L) activation of MM cells. Immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and protein sequencing studies identified the target antigen of 5E2 mAb as the 86-kD subunit of the Ku autoantigen. We demonstrate that increased cell surface expression of Ku on CD40L-treated cells is due to migration of Ku from the cytoplasm to the cell surface membrane. Moreover, cell surface Ku on CD40L-treated MM cells mediates homotypic adhesion of tumor cells, as well as heterotypic adhesion of tumor cells to bone marrow stromal cells and to human fibronectin; and 5E2 mAb abrogates IL-6 secretion triggered by tumor cell adherence to bone marrow stromal cells. These data suggest that CD40L treatment induces a shift of Ku from the cytoplasm to the cell surface, and are the first to show that Ku functions as an adhesion molecule. They further suggest that cell surface Ku may play a role in both autocrine and paracrine IL-6-mediated MM cell growth and survival.
G Teoh, M Urashima, EA Greenfield, KA Nguyen, JF Lee, D Chauhan, A Ogata, SP Treon, KC Anderson
We investigated preproendothelin-1 (ppET-1) gene expression in the main and midregion pulmonary artery, and peripheral lung from control sheep and from animals during the development of the structural and functional changes of air-induced chronic pulmonary hypertension (CPH). Measurement of ET-1 in lung lymph (n = 7) at 1, 4, 8, and 12 d of continuous air embolization (CAE) showed a significant increase from day 4 compared with controls (n = 4). A semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR for ppET-1 gene expression was developed using ovine-specific primers. Control sheep showed strikingly fewer ppET-1 transcripts in the midregion (22.9+/-2.3 ng cDNA equivalents) than in the main pulmonary artery and lung (736.0+/-263.7 and 705.5+/-125.7, respectively). Smooth muscle cells (SMC) isolated from the main and midregion artery of control sheep confirmed these findings and showed higher levels of intracellular ET-1 synthesis in the main versus the midregion artery. Differences in gene expression persisted during CAE. In main pulmonary artery and lung, ppET-1 transcripts fell to < 1% of controls. However, transcripts in the midregion artery showed a gradual increase. Coincubation of SMC from the midregion with ET-1 plus TGF-beta resulted in an increase in intracellular big ET-1 and a decrease in SMC from the main artery. We conclude that SMC from the main and midregion pulmonary artery are phenotypically different and suggest that local synthesis of ET-1 and TGF-beta, and increased levels of ET-1 in lung lymph, regulate ppET-1 gene expression and synthesis in arterial SMC during the development of air-induced CPH.
E Tchekneva, T Quertermous, B W Christman, M L Lawrence, B Meyrick
Alloreactive T lymphocytes can respond to foreign MHC complexed with foreign peptides through the direct pathway of allorecognition and can additionally recognize allopeptides expressed in the context of recipient (self) MHC through the indirect pathway. To better elucidate how indirect pathway-responsive CD4(+) T cells mediate allograft rejection, we isolated and characterized a TH1 T cell line from BALB/c recipients of B10.A skin that responds to a defined immunodominant, self-restricted allopeptide, I-Abetak58-71. When transferred into BALB/c severe combined immunodeficiency recipients of B10.A skin allografts, this cell line specifically induced a form of skin graft rejection characterized by the presence of TH1 cytokines, macrophage infiltration, and extensive fibrosis. Recall immune responses and immunofluorescence of the rejecting skin revealed only the presence of the peptide-specific T cells within the recipient animals, with no evidence of a direct pathway alloresponse. These studies demonstrate that T cells reactive to a single self-restricted allopeptide can mediate a form of allogeneic skin graft rejection that exhibits characteristics of a chronic, fibrosing process.
A Valujskikh, D Matesic, A Gilliam, D Anthony, T M Haqqi, P S Heeger
The effective action of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) is impaired in patients with atherosclerosis. This impairment has been attributed in part to increased vascular oxidative stress. EDNO action is improved by administration of ascorbic acid, a water-soluble antioxidant. Ascorbic acid is a potent free-radical scavenger in plasma, and also regulates intracellular redox state in part by sparing cellular glutathione. We specifically investigated the role of intracellular redox state in EDNO action by examining the effect of L-2-oxo-4-thiazolidine carboxylate (OTC) on EDNO-dependent, flow-mediated dilation in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. OTC augments intracellular glutathione by providing substrate cysteine for glutathione synthesis. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was examined with high-resolution ultrasound before and after oral administration of 4.5 g of OTC or placebo in 48 subjects with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Placebo treatment produced no change in flow-mediated dilation (7.0+/-3.9% vs. 7.2+/-3.7%), whereas OTC treatment was associated with a significant improvement in flow-mediated dilation (6.6+/-4.4% vs. 11.0+/-6.3%; P = 0.005). OTC had no effect on arterial dilation to nitroglycerin, systemic blood pressure, heart rate, or reactive hyperemia. These data suggest that augmenting cellular glutathione levels improves EDNO action in human atherosclerosis. Cellular redox state may be an important regulator of EDNO action, and is a potential target for therapy in patients with coronary artery disease.
J A Vita, B Frei, M Holbrook, N Gokce, C Leaf, J F Keaney Jr
Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a common congenital malformation characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells of the hindgut. Recently, mutations of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor have been identified in 50 and 15-20% of familial and sporadic HSCR, respectively. These mutations include deletion, insertion, frameshift, nonsense, and missense mutations dispersed throughout the RET coding sequence. To investigate their effects on RET function, seven HSCR missense mutations were introduced into either a 1114-amino acid wild-type RET isoform (RET51) or a constitutively activated form of RET51 (RET-MEN 2A). Here, we report that one mutation affecting the extracytoplasmic cadherin domain (R231H) and two mutations located in the tyrosine kinase domain (K907E, E921K) impaired the biological activity of RET-MEN 2A when tested in Rat1 fibroblasts and pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. However, the mechanisms resulting in RET inactivation differed since the receptor bearing R231H extracellular mutation resulted in an absent RET protein at the cell surface while the E921K mutation located within the catalytic domain abolished its enzymatic activity. In contrast, three mutations mapping into the intracytoplasmic domain neither modified the transforming capacity of RET-MEN 2A nor stimulated the catalytic activity of RET in our ligand-independent system (S767R, P1039L, M1064T). Finally, the C609W HSCR mutation exerts a dual effect on RET since it leads to a decrease of the receptor at the cell surface and converted RET51 into a constitutively activated kinase due to the formation of disulfide-linked homodimers. Taken together, our data show that allelic heterogeneity at the RET locus in HSCR is associated with various molecular mechanisms responsible for RET dysfunction.
A Pelet, O Geneste, P Edery, A Pasini, S Chappuis, T Atti, A Munnich, G Lenoir, S Lyonnet, M Billaud
Inhibitory G protein activity (Gi) and nitric oxide (NO) modulate muscarinic-cholinergic (MC) inhibition of cardiac beta-adrenergic inotropic responses. We hypothesized that Gi mediates MC-NO synthase (NOS) signal transduction. Isoproterenol (0.2-0.8 microg/min) and acetylcholine (1 microM) were administered to isolated perfused rat hearts pretreated with saline (controls; n = 8) or pertussis toxin (PT; 30 microg/kg intraperitoneally 3 d before study; n = 20). PT abrogated in vitro ADP-ribosylation of Gi protein alpha subunit(s) indicating near-total decrease in Gi protein function. Isoproterenol increased peak +dP/dt in both control (peak isoproterenol effect: +2, 589+/-293 mmHg/s, P < 0.0001) and PT hearts (+3,879+/-474 mmHg/s, P < 0.0001). Acetylcholine reversed isoproterenol inotropy in controls (108+/-21% reduction of +dP/dt response, P = 0.001), but had no effect in PT hearts. In controls, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (100 microM) reduced basal +dP/dt, augmented isoproterenol +dP/dt (peak effect: +4,634+/-690 mmHg/s, P < 0.0001), and reduced the MC inhibitory effect to 69+/-8% (P < 0.03 vs. baseline). L-arginine (100 M) had no effect in controls but in PT hearts decreased basal +dP/dt by 1, 426+/-456 mmHg/s (P < 0.005), downward-shifted the isoproterenol concentration-effect curve, and produced a small MC inhibitory effect (27+/-4% reduction, P < 0.05). This enhanced response to NO substrate was associated with increased NOS III protein abundance, and a three- to fivefold increase in in vitro calcium-dependent NOS activity. Neomycin (1 microM) inhibition of phospholipase C did not reverse L-arginine enhancement of MC inhibitory effects. These data support a primary role for Gi in MC receptor signal transduction with NOS in rat heart, and demonstrate regulatory linkage between Gi and NOS III protein levels.
J M Hare, B Kim, N A Flavahan, K M Ricker, X Peng, L Colman, R G Weiss, D A Kass
Human skin is exposed daily to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV induces the matrix metalloproteinases collagenase, 92-kD gelatinase, and stromelysin, which degrade skin connective tissue and may contribute to premature skin aging (photoaging). Pretreatment of skin with all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) inhibits UV induction of matrix metalloproteinases. We investigated upstream signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of tRA inhibition of UV induction of matrix metalloproteinases in human skin in vivo. Exposure of human skin in vivo to low doses of UV activated EGF receptors, the GTP-binding regulatory protein p21Ras, and stimulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Both JNK and p38 phosphorylated, and thereby activated transcription factors c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2), which bound to the c-Jun promoter and upregulated c-Jun gene expression. Elevated c-Jun, in association with constitutively expressed c-Fos, formed increased levels of transcription factor activator protein (AP) 1, which is required for transcription of matrix metalloproteinases. Pretreatment of human skin with tRA inhibited UV induction of c-Jun protein and, consequently, AP-1. c-Jun protein inhibition occurred via a posttranscriptional mechanism, since tRA did not inhibit UV induction of c-Jun mRNA. These data demonstrate, for the first time, activation of MAP kinase pathways in humans in vivo, and reveal a novel posttranscriptional mechanism by which tRA antagonizes UV activation of AP-1 by inhibiting c-Jun protein induction. Inhibition of c-Jun induction likely contributes to the previously reported prevention by tRA of UV induction of AP-1-regulated matrix-degrading metalloproteinases in human skin.
G J Fisher, H S Talwar, J Lin, P Lin, F McPhillips, Z Wang, X Li, Y Wan, S Kang, J J Voorhees
The antitumor effect and mechanisms activated by murine IL-12 and IL-18, cytokines that induce IFN-gamma production, were studied using engineered SCK murine mammary carcinoma cells. In syngeneic A/J mice, SCK cells expressing mIL-12 or mIL-18 were less tumorigenic and formed tumors more slowly than control cells. Neither SCK.12 nor SCK.18 cells protected significantly against tumorigenesis by distant SCK cells. However, inoculation of the two cell types together synergistically protected 70% of mice from concurrently injected distant SCK cells and 30% of mice from SCK cells established 3 d earlier. Antibody neutralization studies revealed that the antitumor effects of secreted mIL-12 and mIL-18 required IFN-gamma. Interestingly, half the survivors of SCK.12 and/or SCK.18 cells developed protective immunity suggesting that anti-SCK immunity is unlikely to be responsible for protection. Instead, angiogenesis inhibition, assayed by Matrigel implants, appeared to be a property of both SCK.12 and SCK.18 cells and the two cell types together produced significantly greater systemic inhibition of angiogenesis. This suggests that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis is an important part of the systemic antitumor effect produced by mIL-12 and mIL-18.
C M Coughlin, K E Salhany, M Wysocka, E Aruga, H Kurzawa, A E Chang, C A Hunter, J C Fox, G Trinchieri, W M Lee
Activation of the vacuolar proton ATPase (VPATPase) has been implicated in the prevention of apoptosis in neutrophils and adult cardiac myocytes. To determine the role of the VPATPase in apoptosis of cardiac myocytes, we used a potent and specific inhibitor of the VPATPase, bafilomycin A1. Bafilomycin A1 alone caused increased DNA laddering of genomic DNA and increased nuclear staining for fragmented DNA in neonatal cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Intracellular acidification in cardiac myocytes was also observed after 18 h of bafilomycin A1 treatment. Accordingly, bafilomycin A1-treated myocytes also showed increased accumulation of p53 protein and p53-dependent transactivation of gene expression, including a persistent upregulation of p21/wild-type p53 activated fragment 1/cyclin kinase inhibitor protein-1 mRNA. The bafilomycin A1-induced increase in p53 protein levels was accompanied by a marked increase in p53 mRNA accumulation. In contrast, cardiac fibroblasts treated with bafilomycin A1 showed no change in p53 protein expression or pHi and did not undergo apoptosis even after 24 h of treatment. Our data suggest that blockade of the VPATPase induces apoptotic cell death of cardiac myocytes and that this may occur through a p53-mediated apoptotic pathway.
X Long, M T Crow, S J Sollott, L O'Neill, D S Menees, M de Lourdes Hipolito, M O Boluyt, T Asai, E G Lakatta
This study has examined the systemic effects of a circulating gene product, human interleukin 10 (IL-10), released from transduced keratinocytes. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine which has an inhibitory effect on contact hypersensitivity (CHS). An expression vector (phIL-10) was constructed for human IL-10 and was injected into the dorsal skin of hairless rats. Local expression of IL-10 mRNA and protein was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the amount of IL-10 in the local keratinocytes and in the circulation increased with the dose of phIL-10 transferred. To determine whether circulating IL-10 could inhibit the effector phase of CHS at a distant area of the skin, various doses of phIL-10 were injected into the dorsal skin of sensitized rats before challenge on the ears. Our results showed that the degree of swelling of the ears of phIL-10- treated rats was significantly lower than that in the negative control animals. These results suggest that IL-10 released from transduced keratinocytes can enter the bloodstream and cause biological effects at distant areas of the skin. This study demonstrates that it may be possible to treat systemic disease using keratinocyte gene therapy.
X Meng, D Sawamura, K Tamai, K Hanada, H Ishida, I Hashimoto
Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHbeta), a syndrome characterized by low plasma cholesterol levels, is caused by mutations in the apo-B gene that interfere with the synthesis of apo-B100. FHbeta mutations frequently lead to the synthesis of a truncated form of apo-B, which typically is present in plasma at > 5% of the levels of apo-B100. Although many FHbeta mutations have been characterized, the basic mechanisms causing the low plasma levels of truncated apo-B variants have not been defined. We used gene targeting to create a mutant allele that exclusively yields a truncated apo-B, apo-B83. In mice heterozygous for the Apob83 allele, plasma levels and the size and density distribution of apo-B83-containing lipoproteins were strikingly similar to those observed in humans with FHbeta and an apo-B83 mutation. Analysis of mice carrying the Apob83 mutation revealed two mechanisms for the low plasma levels of apo-B83. First, Apob83 mRNA levels and apo-B83 secretion were reduced 76 and 72%, respectively. Second, apo-B83 was removed rapidly from the plasma, compared with apo-B100. This mouse model provides a new level of understanding of FHbeta and adds new insights into apo-B metabolism.
E Kim, CM Cham, MM Véniant, P Ambroziak, SG Young
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are a family of closely related secreted proteins that limit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and also have direct effects on cell growth. We used the highly efficient adenoviral delivery system to overexpress individual TIMPs from the cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Overexpression of TIMP-1, -2, or -3, or a synthetic MMP inhibitor similarly inhibited SMC chemotaxis and invasion through reconstituted basement membrane. TIMP-1 overexpression did not effect cell proliferation. By contrast, TIMP-2 caused a dose-dependent reduction in proliferation, an effect not mimicked by a synthetic MMP inhibitor. TIMP-3 overexpression induced DNA synthesis, and promoted SMC death by apoptosis, a phenotype reproduced by adding TIMP-3 to uninfected cells, but not by a synthetic MMP inhibitor. Our study is the first to compare systematically the effect of overexpression of three TIMPs in any cell. We found similar effects on invasion mediated by inhibition of MMP activity, but widely divergent effects on proliferation and death through actions of TIMP-2 and -3 independent of MMP inhibition. These findings have important implications for the physiological roles of TIMPs and their use in gene therapy.
A H Baker, A B Zaltsman, S J George, A C Newby