Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a common congenital malformation characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells of the hindgut. Recently, mutations of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor have been identified in 50 and 15-20% of familial and sporadic HSCR, respectively. These mutations include deletion, insertion, frameshift, nonsense, and missense mutations dispersed throughout the RET coding sequence. To investigate their effects on RET function, seven HSCR missense mutations were introduced into either a 1114-amino acid wild-type RET isoform (RET51) or a constitutively activated form of RET51 (RET-MEN 2A). Here, we report that one mutation affecting the extracytoplasmic cadherin domain (R231H) and two mutations located in the tyrosine kinase domain (K907E, E921K) impaired the biological activity of RET-MEN 2A when tested in Rat1 fibroblasts and pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. However, the mechanisms resulting in RET inactivation differed since the receptor bearing R231H extracellular mutation resulted in an absent RET protein at the cell surface while the E921K mutation located within the catalytic domain abolished its enzymatic activity. In contrast, three mutations mapping into the intracytoplasmic domain neither modified the transforming capacity of RET-MEN 2A nor stimulated the catalytic activity of RET in our ligand-independent system (S767R, P1039L, M1064T). Finally, the C609W HSCR mutation exerts a dual effect on RET since it leads to a decrease of the receptor at the cell surface and converted RET51 into a constitutively activated kinase due to the formation of disulfide-linked homodimers. Taken together, our data show that allelic heterogeneity at the RET locus in HSCR is associated with various molecular mechanisms responsible for RET dysfunction.
A Pelet, O Geneste, P Edery, A Pasini, S Chappuis, T Atti, A Munnich, G Lenoir, S Lyonnet, M Billaud