We examined the effect of intravenously infused glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on subjective appetite sensations after an energy-fixed breakfast, and on spontaneous energy intake at an ad libitum lunch. 20 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, blinded, crossover study. Infusion (GLP-1, 50 pmol/ kg.h or saline) was started simultaneously with initiation of the test meals. Visual analogue scales were used to assess appetite sensations throughout the experiment and the palatability of the test meals. Blood was sampled throughout the day for analysis of plasma hormone and substrate levels. After the energy-fixed breakfast, GLP-1 infusion enhanced satiety and fullness compared with placebo (treatment effect: P < 0.03). Furthermore, spontaneous energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was reduced by 12% by GLP-1 infusion compared with saline (P = 0.002). Plasma GLP-1, insulin, glucagon, and blood glucose profiles were affected significantly by the treatment (P < 0.002). In conclusion, the results show that GLP-1 enhanced satiety and reduced energy intake and thus may play a physiological regulatory role in controlling appetite and energy intake in humans.
A Flint, A Raben, A Astrup, J J Holst
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion and action. Recent studies have found mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha gene (HNF-4alpha) in families with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), an autosomal dominant form of diabetes characterized by early age at onset and a defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. During the course of our search for susceptibility genes contributing to the more common late-onset NIDDM forms, we observed nominal evidence for linkage between NIDDM and markers in the region of the HNF-4alpha/MODY1 locus in a subset of French families with NIDDM diagnosed before 45 yr of age. Thus, we screened these families for mutations in the HNF-4alpha gene. We found a missense mutation, resulting in a valine-to-isoleucine substitution at codon 393 in a single family. This mutation cosegregated with diabetes and impaired insulin secretion, and was not present in 119 control subjects. Expression studies showed that this conservative substitution is associated with a marked reduction of transactivation activity, a result consistent with this mutation contributing to the insulin secretory defect observed in this family.
E H Hani, L Suaud, P Boutin, J C Chèvre, E Durand, A Philippi, F Demenais, N Vionnet, H Furuta, G Velho, G I Bell, B Laine, P Froguel
Angiotensin (Ang) II has two major receptor isoforms, AT1 and AT2. Currently, AT1 antagonists are undergoing clinical trials in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Treatment with AT1 antagonists causes elevation of plasma Ang II which selectively binds to AT2 and exerts as yet undefined effects. Cardiac AT2 level is low in adult hearts, whereas its distribution ratio is increased during cardiac remodeling and its action is enhanced by application of AT1 antagonists. Although in AT2 knock-out mice sensitivity to the pressor action of Ang II was increased, underlying mechanisms remain undefined. Here, we report the unexpected finding that cardiac-specific overexpression of the AT2 gene using alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter resulted in decreased sensitivity to AT1-mediated pressor and chronotropic actions. AT2 protein undetectable in the hearts of wild-type mice was overexpressed in atria and ventricles of the AT2 transgenic (TG) mice and the proportions of AT2 relative to AT1 were 41% in atria and 45% in ventricles. No obvious morphological change was observed in the myocardium and there was no significant difference in cardiac development or heart to body weight ratio between wild-type and TG mice. Infusion of Ang II to AT2 TG mice caused a significantly attenuated increase in blood pressure response and the change was completely blocked by pretreatment with AT2 antagonist. This decreased sensitivity to Ang II-induced pressor action was mainly due to the AT2-mediated strong negative chronotropic effect and exerted by circulating Ang II in a physiological range that did not stimulate catecholamine release. Isolated hearts of AT2 transgenic mice perfused using a Langendorff apparatus also showed decreased chronotropic responses to Ang II with no effects on left ventricular dp/dt max values, and Ang II-induced activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase was inhibited in left ventricles in the transgenic mice. Although transient outward K+ current recorded in cardiomyocytes from AT2 TG mice was not influenced by AT2 activation, this study suggested that overexpression of AT2 decreases the sensitivity of pacemaker cells to Ang II. Our results demonstrate that stimulation of cardia AT2 exerts a novel antipressor action by inhibiting AT1-mediated chronotropic effects, and that application of AT1 antagonists to patients with cardiovascular diseases has beneficial pharmacotherapeutic effects of stimulating cardiac AT2.
H Masaki, T Kurihara, A Yamaki, N Inomata, Y Nozawa, Y Mori, S Murasawa, K Kizima, K Maruyama, M Horiuchi, V J Dzau, H Takahashi, T Iwasaka, M Inada, H Matsubara
Previous studies using isolated tissues suggest that the colonic H, K-ATPase (cHKA), expressed in the colon and kidney, plays an important role in K+ conservation. To test the role of this pump in K+ homeostasis in vivo, we generated a cHKA-deficient mouse and analyzed its ability to retain K+ when fed a control or K+-free diet. When maintained on a control diet, homozygous mutant (cHKA-/-) mice exhibited no deficit in K+ homeostasis compared to wild-type (cHKA+/+ greater, similar mice. Although fecal K+ excretion in cHKA-/- mice was double that of cHKA+/+ mice, fecal K+ losses were low compared with urinary K+ excretion, which was similar in both groups. When maintained on a K+-free diet for 18 d, urinary K+ excretion dropped over 100-fold, and to similar levels, in both cHKA-/- and cHKA+/+ mice; fecal K+ excretion was reduced in both groups, but losses were fourfold greater in cHKA-/- than in cHKA+/+ mice. Because of the excess loss of K+ in the colon, cHKA-/- mice exhibited lower plasma and muscle K+ than cHKA+/+ mice. In addition, cHKA-/- mice lost twice as much body weight as cHKA+/+ mice. These results demonstrate that, during K+ deprivation, cHKA plays a critical role in the maintenance of K+ homeostasis in vivo.
P Meneton, P J Schultheis, J Greeb, M L Nieman, L H Liu, L L Clarke, J J Duffy, T Doetschman, J N Lorenz, G E Shull
The two isoforms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma1 and PPARgamma2), are ligand-activated transcription factors that are the intracellular targets of a new class of insulin sensitizing agents, the thiazolidinediones. The observation that thiazolidinediones enhance skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in obesity and in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), by activating PPARgamma, and possibly by inducing its expression, suggests that PPARgamma expression in skeletal muscle plays a key role in determining tissue sensitivity to insulin, and that PPARgamma expression may be decreased in insulin resistant subjects. We used a sensitive ribonuclease protection assay, that permits simultaneous measurement of the two isoforms, to examine the effects of obesity and NIDDM, and the effects of insulin, on skeletal muscle levels of PPARgamma1 and PPARgamma2 mRNA. We studied seven patients with NIDDM (body mass index, 32+/-1 kg/m2), seven lean (24+/-1 kg/m2), and six obese (36+/-1 kg/m2) normal subjects. Biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and after a 5-h hyperinsulinemic (80 mU/m2 per minute) euglycemic clamp. The obese controls and NIDDM patients were insulin resistant with glucose disposal rates during the last 30 min of the clamp that were 67 and 31%, respectively, of those found in the lean controls. PPARgamma1, but not PPARgamma2 mRNA was detected in skeletal muscle at 10-15% of the level found in adipose tissue. No difference was found in PPARgamma1 levels between the three groups, and there was no change in PPARgamma1 levels after 5 h of hyperinsulinemia. In obese subjects, PPARgamma1 correlated with clamp glucose disposal rates (r = 0.92, P < 0.01). In the lean and NIDDM patients, muscle PPARgamma1 levels correlated with percentage body fat (r = 0.76 and r = 0.82, respectively, both P < 0.05) but not with body mass index. In conclusion: (a) skeletal muscle PPARgamma1 expression does not differ between normal and diabetic subjects, and is not induced by short-term hyperinsulinemia; (b) skeletal muscle PPARgamma1 expression was higher in subjects whose percent body fat exceeded 25%, and this may be a compensatory phenomenon in an attempt to maintain normal insulin sensitivity.
Y T Kruszynska, R Mukherjee, L Jow, S Dana, J R Paterniti, J M Olefsky
The targeted gene inactivation of endothelins-1 and -3 (ET-1 and ET-3) and of one of their receptors, ETB, in the mouse causes severe defects in the embryonic development. These defects, cardiovascular and craniofacial malformations for ET-1, and colonic agangliogenesis associated with skin pigmentation anomalies for ET-3 and the ETB receptor, reproduce pathological phenotypes due to natural mutations of the same genes in the mouse and the human. The mutant phenotypes have been causatively linked to deficient migration/proliferation/differentiation of neural crest cells, i.e., neurocristopathies. To bring new insight about the exact roles of ETs in development and the involvement of neural crest cells in these processes, we have explored, by in situ hybridization, the ontogeny in the early human embryo of the ET system (ET-1 and ET-3, ETA and ETB receptors, ET converting enzyme-1). ET receptor mRNA expression in neural crest cells starts at 3 wk of gestation and continues during the entire period studied (up to 6 wk of gestation). During this period, ETA expression progressively spreads to undifferentiated mesodermal components of various structures and organs (head and axial skeleton, lateral and ventral subdermal mesoderm), whereas ETB expression remains more restricted to fewer differentiated cells (neural tube, sensory and sympathetic ganglia, endothelium). Some of these tissues and structures that express either one of the receptors do not appear to be of neural crest origin. In the digestive tract and the cardiovascular area, the present observations on the sources of ETs and their target cells in the young embryo provide the basis for a dynamic interpretation of the results of gene targeting of the mouse and the human phenotypes, and point to other possible roles of ETs in other ontogenetic processes. The results support the concept of local, rather than hormonal, interactions between the sources and targets of ETs during development.
M Brand, J M Le Moullec, P Corvol, J M Gasc
Tissue factor (TF) expression is associated with life-threatening thrombosis in a variety of human diseases, including sepsis, cancer, and atherosclerosis. Recently, it was shown that inactivation of the murine TF (mTF) gene results in embryonic lethality. To date, despite extensive studies on the regulation of the TF promoter in vitro, no studies have examined the cis-acting regulatory elements that control TF gene expression in vivo. Here we report that a human TF (hTF) minigene containing the human TF promoter and human TF cDNA directed a low level (approximately 1% relative to mouse TF) of both constitutive and LPS-inducible human TF expression in transgenic mice. Importantly, the human TF minigene rescued the embryonic lethality of murine TF null embryos, suggesting that human TF substituted for murine TF during embryogenesis. Rescued mice (mTF-/-, hTF+), which expressed low levels (approximately 1%) of TF activity, developed normally with no signs of a bleeding diathesis, suggesting that low TF expression can maintain hemostasis compatible with normal survival. These studies establish a novel mouse model system that can be used to examine the regulation of the human TF gene in vivo and the impact of low TF levels on the hemostatic balance in various thrombotic diseases.
G C Parry, J H Erlich, P Carmeliet, T Luther, N Mackman
In vitro studies have demonstrated that intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are constitutively cytotoxic; however, the mechanism and target of their cytotoxicity are unknown. Apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and an increase in IEL numbers are classical signs of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), although whether IEL can mediate IEC apoptosis directly in GVHD is unclear. Recent evidence suggests that target epithelial organ injury observed in GVHD is predominantly Fas-mediated; therefore, we investigated the possibility that IEL induce apoptosis of IEC through a Fas-mediated mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that the IEL isolated from normal mice readily display potent Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated killing activity after CD3 stimulation, and that IEC express Fas, suggesting that IEC are potential targets for FasL-mediated killing by IEL. In vitro, IEL isolated from GVHD mice have markedly increased FasL-mediated killing potential and are spontaneously cytolytic toward host-derived tumor cells predominantly through a Fas-mediated pathway. In vivo transfer of IEL isolated from GVHD mice induced significantly more IEC apoptosis in F1 wild-type mice than in Fas-defective F1lpr mice. Thus, these results demonstrate that FasL-mediated death of IEC by IEL is a major mechanism of IEC apoptosis seen in GVHD.
T Lin, T Brunner, B Tietz, J Madsen, E Bonfoco, M Reaves, M Huflejt, D R Green
Because dietary acid increases renal secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1) which is synthesized by renal microvascular endothelium, we examined if reduced extracellular pH increases ET-1 secretion by cultured human renal microvascular endothelial cells (RMVECs). Confluent cells were exposed to serum-free media for 24 h, then incubated in either control, acid, or alkaline serum-free media for 12 h. Standard growth media pH was 7.2 after equilibration with 5% CO2 at 37 degrees C and was made the pH of control media. Acid and alkaline media pH were 7.0 and 7.4, respectively. Added Hepes and Tris maintained all assigned pHs. Media ET-1 measured by RIA after column extraction was higher for RMVECs exposed to acid compared with control media (170.0+/-17.1 vs. 64.6+/-9.6 pM, P < 0.004) but those exposed to alkaline media (56.6+/-25.1 pM, P = NS vs. control) were not. Human aortic endothelial cells exposed to control, acid, and alkaline media had similar ET-1 (166.6+/-18.1, 139.3+/-18.5, and 205.9+/-25.3 pM, P = NS). The data show acid-stimulated ET-1 secretion by RMVECs but not aortic endothelial cells, demonstrating a new environmental factor that influences ET-1 secretion by renal microvascular endothelium and thereby possibly modulates endothelin-dependent processes in vivo.
D E Wesson, J Simoni, D F Green
The beta3 adrenergic receptor, located on chromosome 8, is a regulator of energy expenditure and lipolysis. A missense mutation in this gene, characterized by the replacement of tryptophan by arginine at codon 64 (Trp64Arg), is associated with obesity in some studies. We examined the effect of this variant on obesity in Mexican Americans, using a paired sibling design to minimize variability due to genetic background and a previously identified major susceptibility locus for obesity. We identified 45 sib-pairs that were concordant (identical by descent) for a locus on chromosome 2 which we have shown previously to be tightly linked to obesity in this population. The Trp64Arg variant, detected by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, was present in one sibling within each of the 45 sib-pairs. Presence of the variant was associated with significantly higher values in body mass index (P = 0.04), fat mass (P = 0.04), and waist circumference (P = 0.05). We conclude that the Trp64Arg variant is associated with obesity in this Mexican American population. The paired sibling design probably enhanced our ability to detect the effects of this variant by allowing us to account for variation attributable to another obesity susceptibility locus and to background genes.
B D Mitchell, J Blangero, A G Comuzzie, L A Almasy, A R Shuldiner, K Silver, M P Stern, J W MacCluer, J E Hixson
Rabson-Mendenhall's syndrome is one of the most severe forms of insulin resistance syndrome. We analyzed an English patient described elsewhere and found novel mutations in both alleles of the insulin receptor gene. One is a substitution of G for A at the 3' splice acceptor site of intron 4, and the other is an eight-base pair deletion in exon 12. Both decrease mRNA expression in a cis-dominant manner, and are predicted to produce severely truncated proteins. Surprisingly, nearly normal insulin receptor levels were expressed in the patient's lymphocytes, although the level of expression assessed by immunoblot was approximately 10% of the control cells. Insulin binding affinity was markedly reduced, but insulin-dependent tyrosine kinase activity was present. Analyzing the insulin receptor mRNA of the patient's lymphocytes by reverse transcription PCR, we discovered aberrant splicing caused by activation of a cryptic splice site in exon 5, resulting in a four-amino acid deletion and one amino acid substitution, but restoring an open reading frame. Skipped exon 5, another aberrant splicing, was found in both the patient and the mother who had the heterozygotic mutation, whereas activation of the cryptic splice site occurred almost exclusively in the patient. Transfectional analysis in COS cells revealed that the mutant receptor produced by cryptic site activation has the same characteristics as those expressed in patient's lymphocytes. We speculate that this mutant receptor may be involved in the relatively long survival of the patient by rescuing otherwise more severe phenotypes resulting from the complete lack of functional insulin receptors.
Y Takahashi, H Kadowaki, A Ando, J D Quin, A C MacCuish, Y Yazaki, Y Akanuma, T Kadowaki
IL-18 inhibits osteoclast (OCL) formation in vitro independent of IFN-gamma production, and this was abolished by the addition of neutralizing antibodies to GM-CSF. We now establish that IL-18 was unable to inhibit OCL formation in cocultures using GM-CSF-deficient mice (GM-CSF -/-). Reciprocal cocultures using either wild-type osteoblasts with GM-CSF -/- spleen cells or GM-CSF -/- osteoblasts with wild-type spleen cells were examined. Wild-type spleen cells were required to elicit a response to IL-18 indicating that cells of splenic origin were the IL-18 target. As T cells comprise a large proportion of the spleen cell population, the role of T cells in osteoclastogenesis was examined. Total T cells were removed and repleted in various combinations. Addition of wild-type T cells to a GM-CSF -/- coculture restored IL-18 inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Major subsets of T cells, CD4+ and CD8+, were also individually depleted. Addition of either CD4+ or CD8+ wild-type T cells restored IL-18 action in a GM-CSF -/- background, while IL-18 was ineffective when either CD4+ or CD8+ GM-CSF -/- T cells were added to a wild-type coculture. These results highlight the involvement of T cells in IL-18-induced OCL inhibition and provide evidence for a new OCL inhibitory pathway whereby IL-18 inhibits OCL formation due to action upon T cells promoting the release of GM-CSF, which in turn acts upon OCL precursors.
N J Horwood, N Udagawa, J Elliott, D Grail, H Okamura, M Kurimoto, A R Dunn, T Martin, M T Gillespie
Carbon monoxide (CO) derived from heme oxygenase has recently been shown to play a role in controlling hepatobiliary function, but intrahepatic distribution of the enzyme is unknown. We examined distribution of two kinds of the heme oxygenase isoforms (HO-1 and HO-2) in rat liver immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies. The results showed that distribution of the two isoforms had distinct topographic patterns: HO-1, an inducible isoform, was observed only in Kupffer cells, while HO-2, a constitutive form, distributed to parenchymal cells, but not to Kupffer cells. Both isoforms were undetectable in hepatic stellate cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Of the two isoforms, HO-2 in the parenchymal cell rather than HO-1 in the Kupffer cell, appears to play a major role in regulation of microvascular tone. In the perfused liver, administration of HbO2, a CO-trapping reagent that can diffuse across the fenestrated endothelium into the space of Disse, elicited a marked sinusoidal constriction, while administration of a liposome-encapsulated Hb that cannot enter the space had no effect on the microvascular tone. These results suggest that CO evolved by HO-2 in the parenchymal cells, and, released to the extrasinusoidal space, served as the physiological relaxant for hepatic sinusoids.
N Goda, K Suzuki, M Naito, S Takeoka, E Tsuchida, Y Ishimura, T Tamatani, M Suematsu
In plasma, von Willebrand factor (vWf) associates with Factor VIII (FVIII); however, the site at which these proteins first interact has not been defined. Administration of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) causes a rapid, concomitant elevation in plasma levels of both vWf and FVIII, suggesting the existence of a DDAVP-releasable storage pool for both proteins. To determine whether vWf and FVIII can associate intracellularly and colocalize to storage vesicles, we transfected AtT-20 cells with vWf and FVIII expression plasmids. FVIII alone was not detectable within storage granules; however, transfection of vWf cDNA into the same cell caused FVIII to alter its intracellular trafficking and to undergo granular storage, colocalizing to the vWf-containing granules. In contrast, colocalization of FVIII was not observed when these cells were transfected with plasmids encoding defective FVIII-binding vWf mutants. Transfection of bovine endothelial cells with FVIII further demonstrated vesicular storage of FVIII with vWf in Weibel-Palade bodies. Since gene therapy of hemophilia A may ultimately target endothelium or hematopoietic stem cells, the interaction between vWf and FVIII within a secretory cell is important. Thus, vWf can alter the intracellular trafficking of FVIII from a constitutive to a regulated secretory pathway, thereby producing an intracellular storage pool of both proteins.
J B Rosenberg, P A Foster, R J Kaufman, E A Vokac, M Moussalli, P A Kroner, R R Montgomery
Transgenic mice were generated by microinjection of a construct containing a self-activating human TGF-beta1 cDNA driven by the lens-specific alphaA-crystallin promoter. Seven transgenic founder mice were generated, and four transgenic lines expressing TGF-beta1 were characterized. By postnatal day 21, mice from the four families exhibited anterior subcapsular cataracts. The lenses in these mice developed focal plaques of spindle-shaped cells that expressed alpha-smooth muscle actin, and that resembled the plaques seen in human anterior subcapsular cataracts. Transgenic mice showed additional ocular defects, including corneal opacification and structural changes in the iris and ciliary body. The corneal opacities were associated with increased exfoliation of the squamous layer of the corneal epithelium and increased DNA replication in the basal epithelium.
Y Srinivasan, F J Lovicu, P A Overbeek
The mammalian genome encodes at least nine different members of the ClC family of chloride channels. So far only two of them could be localized on a cellular level in the kidney. We now report on the precise intrarenal localization of the mRNAs coding for the chloride channels ClC-2, ClC-3 and ClC-5. Expression of ClC-2 mRNA, encoding a swelling-activated chloride channel, could be demonstrated in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule. The chloride channel ClC-3 mRNA and ClC-5 mRNA, coding for a chloride channel mutated in kidney stone disease, were both expressed in intercalated cells of the connecting tubule and collecting duct. Whereas ClC-3 mRNA expression was most prominent in the cortex of rat kidneys, ClC-5 mRNA was expressed from the cortex through the upper portion of the inner medulla. A detailed analysis revealed that ClC-3 was expressed by type B intercalated cells, whereas ClC-5 was expressed by type A intercalated cells. These findings have important implications for the pathogenesis of hereditary kidney stone disease caused by mutations in the CLCN5 gene.
N Obermüller, N Gretz, W Kriz, R F Reilly, R Witzgall
To further understand the role of cytokine responses in symptom formation and host defenses in influenza infection, we determined the levels of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-alpha, TGF-beta, and TNF-alpha in nasal lavage fluid, plasma, and serum obtained serially from 19 volunteers experimentally infected with influenza A/Texas/36/91 (H1N1) and correlated these levels with various measures of infection and illness severity. We found that IL-6 and IFN-alpha levels in nasal lavage fluids peaked early (day 2) and correlated directly with viral titers, temperature, mucus production, and symptom scores. IL-6 elevations were also found in the circulation at this time point. In contrast, TNF-alpha responses peaked later (day 3 in plasma, day 4 in nasal fluids), when viral shedding and symptoms were subsiding. Similarly, IL-8 peaked late in the illness course (days 4-6) and correlated only with lower respiratory symptoms, which also occurred late. None of IL-1beta, IL-2, or TGF-beta levels increased significantly. These data implicate IL-6 and IFN-alpha as key factors both in symptom formation and host defense in influenza.
F G Hayden, R Fritz, M C Lobo, W Alvord, W Strober, S E Straus
We examined the kinetics of shedding of the soluble TNF receptors (TNF-Rs) in response to TNF leakage during isolated limb perfusion procedures and correlated them to the resulting hemodynamic effects. Shedding of the TNF-Rs started 7 min after TNF leakage into the systemic circulation. Three waves of shedding were observed peaking at 1, 8-12, and 48-72 h both in vivo and in cell cultures. The soluble receptors prolonged the half-life of TNF in the systemic circulation to 2.5-6 h. Excess shedding of the p75 compared with p55 TNF-Rs was noted during the first wave. The amount and speed of shedding of the p75 TNF-Rs were proportional to the serum TNF levels (P < 0.001). A maximal shedding capacity was attained only during the first wave of shedding, at TNF concentrations of approximately 1.5 ng/ml. Above this level, the linearity between TNF and its soluble receptors was lost. TNF-induced hypotension coincided with the initial imbalance between the concentrations of TNF and its soluble receptors. Despite the spontaneous correction of this imbalance at 8-12 h, the hemodynamic and biochemical alterations persisted and were further aggravated at 18 h, suggesting that other factors induced earlier by TNF are responsible for the perpetuation of the hemodynamic instability. This study may provide the basis for a more physiological therapeutic approach to TNF neutralization in septic shock patients.
D Aderka, P Sorkine, S Abu-Abid, D Lev, A Setton, A P Cope, D Wallach, J Klausner
In this study, we show that oxygen regulates nitric oxide (NO) levels through effects on NO synthase (NOS) enzyme kinetics. Initially, NO synthesis in the static lung was measured in bronchiolar gases during an expiratory breath-hold in normal individuals. NO accumulated exponentially to a plateau, indicating balance between NO production and consumption in the lung. Detection of NO2-, NO3-, and S-nitrosothiols in lung epithelial lining fluids confirmed NO consumption by chemical reactions in the lung. Interestingly, alveolar gas NO (estimated from bronchiolar gases at end-expiration) was near zero, suggesting NO in exhaled gases is not derived from circulatory/systemic sources. Dynamic NO levels during tidal breathing in different airway regions (mouth, trachea, bronchus, and bronchiole) were similar. However, in individuals breathing varying levels of inspired oxygen, dynamic NO levels were notably dependent on O2 concentration in the hypoxic range (KmO2 190 microM). Purified NOS type II enzyme activity in vitro was similarly dependent on molecular oxygen levels (KmO2 135 microM), revealing a means by which oxygen concentration affects NO levels in vivo. Based upon these results, we propose that NOS II is a mediator of the vascular response to oxygen in the lung, because its KmO2 allows generation of NO in proportion to the inspired oxygen concentration throughout the physiologic range.
R A Dweik, D Laskowski, H M Abu-Soud, F Kaneko, R Hutte, D J Stuehr, S C Erzurum
Activated protein C (APC) is a potent physiologic anticoagulant with profibrinolytic properties, and has been shown to prevent thrombosis in different experimental models. We investigated the effect of human APC on thrombin-induced thromboembolism in mice, a model of acute intravascular fibrin deposition leading to death within minutes. APC given intravenously (i.v.) as a bolus 2 min before thrombin challenge (1,250 U/kg) reduced mortality in a dose-dependent manner despite the lack of thrombin inhibitor activity. Significant inhibition of thrombin-induced death was observed at the dose of 0.05 mg/kg, and maximal protection was obtained with 2 mg/kg (> 85% reduction in mortality rate). Histology of lung tissue revealed that APC treatment (2 mg/kg) reduced significantly vascular occlusion rate (from 89.2 to 46.6%, P < 0.01). The protective effect of APC was due to the inhibition of endogenous thrombin formation as indicated by the fact that (a) the injection of human thrombin caused a marked decrease in the coagulation factors of the intrinsic and common pathways (but not of Factor VII), suggesting the activation of blood clotting via the contact system; (b) APC pretreatment reduced markedly prothrombin consumption; (c) the lethal effect of thrombin was almost abolished when the animals were made deficient in vitamin K-dependent factors by warfarin treatment, and could be restored only by doubling the dose of thrombin, indicating that the generation of endogenous thrombin contributes significantly to death; and (d) APC failed to protect warfarin-treated animals, in which mortality is entirely due to injected thrombin, even after protein S supplementation. Other results suggest that APC protects from thrombin-induced thromboembolism by rendering the formed fibrin more susceptible to plasmin degradation rather than by reducing fibrin formation: in thrombin-treated mice, fibrinogen consumption was not inhibited by APC; and inhibition of endogenous fibrinolysis by epsilon-aminocaproic or tranexamic acid resulted in a significant reduction of the protective effect of APC. Since APC did not enhance plasma fibrinolytic activity, as assessed by the measurement of plasminogen activator (PA) or PA inhibitor (PAI) activities, PAI-1 antigen, or 125I-fibrin degrading activity, we speculate that the inhibition of additional (endogenous) thrombin formation by APC interrupts thrombin-dependent mechanisms that make fibrin clots more resistant to lysis, so that the intravascular deposited fibrin can be removed more rapidly by the endogenous fibrinolytic system.
P Gresele, S Momi, M Berrettini, G G Nenci, H P Schwarz, N Semeraro, M Colucci
Patients with IgG2 deficiency have recurrent sinopulmonary infections caused by Pneumococcus and Hemophilus. Hereditary and selective IgG2 deficiency was suspected in two Japanese siblings whose serum IgG2 levels were under detection limits, while other serum levels of immunoglobulin subclasses were within normal ranges. Expression level of spontaneous germline Cgamma2 transcript was normal, but that of the spontaneous mature Cgamma2 transcript was greatly decreased in the patients' PBMCs, suggesting the presence of a defect at or after the class switch to Cgamma2. We sequenced the Cgamma2 gene region, and in both patients a homozygous one-base insertion (1793insG) was present in exon 4 of the Cgamma2 gene, just upstream from the alternative splice site for M exons. The mutant membrane-bound gamma2 heavy chain loses the transmembrane domain and the evolutionarily conserved cytoplasmic domain. Considering several lines of evidence showing that intact expression of the membrane-bound heavy chain is essential for a normal response of B cells and production of secreted immunoglobulin in mice, we concluded that 1793insG is responsible for selective and complete IgG2 deficiency in these two siblings. This is the first documentation of a mutation in human selective IgG2 deficiency.
H Tashita, T Fukao, H Kaneko, T Teramoto, R Inoue, K Kasahara, N Kondo
We isolated and identified nucleoside(5') oligophospho-(5') nucleosides containing adenosine and guanosine (ApnG; n = 3-6) as well as diguanosine polyphosphates (GpnG; n = 3-6) in human platelets. For identification, UV spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, postsource decay matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and enzymatic cleavage experiments were used. The adenosine(5') oligophospho-(5') guanosines act as vasoconstrictors and growth factors. The diguanosine polyphosphates are potent modulators of growth in vascular smooth muscle cells, but do not affect vascular tone.
H Schlüter, I Grobeta, J Bachmann, R Kaufmann, M van der Giet, M Tepel, J R Nofer, G Assmann, M Karas, J Jankowski, W Zidek
The multifunctional low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP) has been postulated to participate in a number of diverse physiological and pathological processes ranging from the homeostasis of plasma lipoproteins, atherosclerosis, and fibrinolysis to neuronal regeneration and survival. It has not been possible to demonstrate in vivo the physiological significance of LRP for each of these complex processes by a conventional gene knockout approach because LRP is essential for embryonic development. Here we have used the Cre/loxP recombination system to achieve inducible, tissue-specific and quantitative disruption of the LRP gene in adult mice. Inactivation of LRP in the livers of LDL receptor-deficient mice resulted in the accumulation of cholesterol-rich remnant lipoproteins in the circulation. In normal animals, this caused a compensatory upregulation of the LDL receptor in the liver. Conditional gene targeting has thus allowed us to isolate a specific physiological function of LRP for in vivo analysis and has provided unequivocal evidence for another LDL receptor-independent cholesterol clearance pathway in liver.
A Rohlmann, M Gotthardt, R E Hammer, J Herz
Background genes determine the incidence and severity of lymphoaccumulation and histopathologic manifestations of systemic autoimmunity in mice homozygous for the apoptosis-defective Faslpr mutation. By interval mapping of 274 F2 mice intercrossed between MRL-Faslpr (severe disease) and C57BL/6-Faslpr (minimal disease), four loci were identified with significant linkage to lymphadenopathy and/ or splenomegaly on chromosomes 4, 5, 7, and 10, which were named lupus in (MRL-Faslpr x B6-Faslpr)F2 cross1-4 (Lmb1-4), respectively. Lmb1, -2, and -3 were also linked to the production of anti-dsDNA antibodies, but not glomerulonephritis, whereas Lmb4 was associated with glomerulonephritis. Lmb2, -3, and -4 were inherited from the MRL background, but interestingly, Lmb1 was derived from the C57BL16-Faslpr. Nevertheless, each locus, regardless of the strain of origin, appeared to act in an additive manner, although certain combinations were more effective. Only a single suggestive locus on chromosome 1 could be correlated with arthritis. The identification of loci with highly significant linkage to disease manifestations in Faslpr strains will make it possible to map and clone new genetic defects contributing to autoimmunity.
S Vidal, D H Kono, A N Theofilopoulos
A transmembrane pump for organic anions was identified in resting murine T helper (Th) 2, but not Th1 lymphocyte cell clones, as revealed by extrusion of a fluorescent dye. Dye extrusion inhibition studies suggested that the pump may be the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP). The different expression of the pump in resting Th1 and Th2 cell clones correlated with their respective levels of MRP mRNA. The pump was inducible in Th1 cells by antigenic stimulation in vitro leading to equal expression in activated Th1 and Th2 cell clones. This suggested that dye extrusion might allow the detection of Th2 (resting or activated) or of activated Th1 cells ex vivo based on a functional parameter. To test this, mice were infected with Leishmania major parasites to activate L. major-specific T cells of either Th1 (C57BL/6 mice) or Th2 (BALB/c mice) phenotype: 2-3% of CD4+ lymph node T cells of both strains of mice extruded the dye, defining a cell subset that did not coincide with subsets defined by other activation markers. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting revealed that the lymphokine response (Th1 or Th2, respectively) to L. major antigens was restricted to this dye-extruding subset.
M Lohoff, S Prechtl, F Sommer, M Roellinghoff, E Schmitt, G Gradehandt, P Rohwer, B D Stride, S P Cole, R G Deeley
IL-18 is synthesized as a precursor molecule without a signal peptide but requires the IL-1beta converting enzyme (ICE, caspase-1) for cleavage into a mature peptide. Human precursor IL-18 was expressed, purified, and cleaved by ICE into a 18-kD mature form. Mature IL-18 induced IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the absence of any co-stimuli. Blocking IL-1 with IL-1 receptor antagonist resulted in a 50% reduction in IL-8. Neutralization of TNF with TNF binding protein resulted in a 66% reduction in IL-1beta, an 80% reduction of IL-8, and an 88% reduction in mean TNFalpha mRNA. In purified CD14+ cells but not CD3+/CD4+, IL-18 induced gene expression and synthesis of IL-8 and IL-1beta. TNFalpha production was induced in the non-CD14+ population and there was no induction of TNFbeta by IL-18. In purified natural killer cells, IL-18 induced IL-8 that was also inhibited by TNF binding protein. IL-18 did not induce antiinflammatory cytokines, IL-1Ra, or IL-10, although IL-18 induction of TNFalpha was inhibited by IL-10. In the presence of IFNgamma, IL-18-induced TNFalpha was enhanced and there was an increase in the mature form of IL-1beta. We conclude that IL-18 possesses proinflammatory properties by direct stimulation of gene expression and synthesis of TNFalpha from CD3+/CD4+ and natural killer cells with subsequent production of IL-1beta and IL-8 from the CD14+ population.
A J Puren, G Fantuzzi, Y Gu, M S Su, C A Dinarello