Currently available HIV-1 protease inhibitors are potent agents in the therapy of HIV-1 infection. However, limited oral absorption and variable tissue distribution, both of which are largely unexplained, complicate their use. We tested the hypothesis that P-glycoprotein is an important transporter for these agents. We studied the vectorial transport characteristics of indinavir, nelfinavir, and saquinavir in vitro using the model P-glycoprotein expressing cell lines L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells, and in vivo after intravenous and oral administration of these agents to mice with a disrupted mdr1a gene. All three compounds were found to be transported by P-glycoprotein in vitro. After oral administration, plasma concentrations were elevated 2-5-fold in mdr1a (-/-) mice and with intravenous administration, brain concentrations were elevated 7-36-fold. These data demonstrate that P-glycoprotein limits the oral bioavailability and penetration of these agents into the brain. This raises the possibility that higher HIV-1 protease inhibitor concentrations may be obtained by targeted pharmacologic inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport activity.
R B Kim, M F Fromm, C Wandel, B Leake, A J Wood, D M Roden, G R Wilkinson
We and others have shown that an increased extracellular concentration of adenosine mediates the antiinflammatory effects of methotrexate and sulfasalazine both in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanism by which these drugs increase extracellular adenosine remains unclear. The results of the experiments reported here provide three distinct lines of evidence that adenosine results from the ecto-5'-nucleotidase- mediated conversion of adenine nucleotides to adenosine. First, pretreatment of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) with methotrexate increases extracellular adenosine after exposure of the pretreated cells to activated neutrophils; the ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor alpha, beta-methylene adenosine-5'-diphosphate (APCP) abrogates completely the increase in extracellular adenosine. Second, there is no methotrexate-mediated increase in extracellular adenosine concentration in the supernate of cells deficient in ecto-5'-nucleotidase, but there is a marked increase in extracellular adenosine concentration in the supernates of these cells after transfection and surface expression of the enzyme. Finally, as we have shown previously, adenosine mediates the antiinflammatory effects of methotrexate and sulfasalazine in the murine air pouch model of inflammation, and injection of APCP, the ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor, abrogates completely the increase in adenosine and the decrement in inflammation in this in vivo model. These results not only show that ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity is a critical mediator of methotrexate- and sulfasalazine-induced antiinflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo but also indicate that adenine nucleotides, released from cells, are the source of extracellular adenosine.
L Morabito, M C Montesinos, D M Schreibman, L Balter, L F Thompson, R Resta, G Carlin, M A Huie, B N Cronstein
Integrins, which connect the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix and mediate a variety of signaling cascades, may transduce mechanical stimuli into biochemical signals. We studied integrin- and matrix-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK1), and p38 in response to 4% static biaxial stretch in rat cardiac fibroblasts. ERK2 and JNK1, but not p38, were rapidly activated by stretch when the fibroblasts were allowed to synthesize their own matrices. When the cells were limited to specific matrix substrates, ERK2 and JNK1 were differentially activated: ERK2 was only activated when the cells were plated on fibronectin, while JNK1 was activated when the cells were plated on fibronectin, vitronectin, or laminin. Plating cells on collagen before stretching did not activate either kinase. Adhesion to all matrices was integrin-dependent because it could be blocked by inhibitors of specific integrins. ERK2 activation could be blocked with a combination of anti-alpha4 and -alpha5 antibodies and an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, while the antibodies or peptide used separately failed to block ERK2 activation. This result suggests that at least two integrins, alpha4beta1 and an RGD-directed, non-alpha5beta1 integrin, activate ERK2 in response to mechanical stimulation. Activation of JNK1 could not be blocked with the inhibitors, suggesting that an RGD-independent integrin or integrins other than alpha4beta1 can activate JNK1 in cells adherent to fibronectin. This study demonstrates that integrins act as mechanotransducers, providing insight into potential mechanisms for in vivo responses to mechanical stimuli.
D A MacKenna, F Dolfi, K Vuori, E Ruoslahti
IL-6 is induced often together with the proinflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and IL-1 in many alarm conditions, and circulating IL-6 plays an important role in the induction of acute phase reactions. However, whether this endogenous IL-6 plays any additional pro- or antiinflammatory roles in local or systemic responses remains unclear. In this study, the role of IL-6 in acute inflammatory responses was investigated in animal models of endotoxic lung or endotoxemia by using IL-6+/+ and IL-6-/- mice. Aerosol exposure of endotoxin induced increased IL-6 and proinflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and MIP-2 and a neutrophilic response in the lung of IL-6+/+ mice. However, the levels of TNFalpha and MIP-2 and neutrophilia were significantly higher in the lung of IL-6-/- mice. The rate of neutrophil apoptosis in these mice was similar to that in IL-6+/+ mice. A low constitutive level of antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 was not enhanced by endotoxin and remained similar in the lung in both IL-6+/+ and IL-6-/- mice. Systemically, intraperitoneal delivery of endotoxin resulted in much more pronounced circulating levels of TNFalpha, MIP-2, GM-CSF, and IFNgamma in IL-6-/- mice than in IL-6+/+ mice, and administration of recombinant IL-6 to IL-6-/- mice abolished these differences. In contrast, circulating IL-10 levels were induced to a similar degree in both IL-6+/+ and IL-6-/- mice. Thus, our studies reveal that endogenous IL-6 plays a crucial antiinflammatory role in both local and systemic acute inflammatory responses by controlling the level of proinflammatory, but not antiinflammatory, cytokines, and that these antiinflammatory activities by IL-6 cannot be compensated for by IL-10 or other IL-6 family members.
Z Xing, J Gauldie, G Cox, H Baumann, M Jordana, X F Lei, M K Achong
Hepsin is a type II transmembrane serine protease highly expressed on the surface of hepatocytes. The physiological function of hepsin is not known, although in vitro studies indicate that hepsin plays a role in the initiation of blood coagulation and in hepatocyte growth. To determine the functional importance of hepsin, we generated hepsin-deficient mice by homologous recombination. Homozygous hepsin-/- mice were viable and fertile, and grew normally. In functional assays including tail bleeding time, plasma clotting times, and tissue factor- or LPS-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation models, no significant difference was found between hepsin-/- and wild-type litter mates. Liver weight and serum concentrations of liver-derived proteins or enzymes were similar in hepsin-/- and wild-type mice. Interestingly, serum concentrations of bone-derived alkaline phosphatase were approximately twofold higher in hepsin-/- mice of both sexes when compared with wild-type litter mates. No obvious abnormalities were found in major organs in hepsin-/- mice in histological examinations. Our results indicate that hepsin is not essential for embryonic development and normal hemostasis. Hepsin-/- mice will help to evaluate the long-term effects of hepsin deficiency in these animals.
Q Wu, D Yu, J Post, M Halks-Miller, J E Sadler, J Morser
An unselected population of 755 siblings of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) was studied to evaluate the predictive characteristics of islet cell antibodies (ICA), antibodies to the IA-2 protein (IA-2A), antibodies to the 65-kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA), and combinations of these markers. We also evaluated whether the histochemical ICA test could be replaced by the combined detection of other markers. 32 siblings progressed to IDDM within 7.7 yr of the initial sample taken at or close to the diagnosis of the index case (median follow-up, 9.1 yr). The positive predictive values of ICA, IA-2A, GADA, and IAA were 43, 55, 42, and 29%, and their sensitivities 81, 69, 69, and 25%, respectively. In contrast to the other three antibody specificities, GADA levels were not related to the risk for IDDM. The risk for IDDM in siblings with four, three, two, one, or no antibodies was 40, 70, 25, 2, and 0.8%, respectively. Combined screening for IA-2A and GADA identified 70% of all ICA-positive siblings, and all of the ICA-positive progressors were also positive for at least one of the three other markers. The sensitivity of the combined analysis of IA-2A and GADA was 81%, and the positive predictive value was 41%. In conclusion, combined screening for IA-2A and GADA may replace the ICA assay, giving comparable sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. Accurate assessment of the risk for IDDM in siblings is complicated, as not even all those with four antibody specificities contract the disease, and some with only one or no antibodies initially will progress to IDDM.
P Kulmala, K Savola, J S Petersen, P Vähäsalo, J Karjalainen, T Löppönen, T Dyrberg, H K Akerblom, M Knip
Cardiac pacemaking offers a unique opportunity for direct gene transfer into the heart. An experimental system was developed to assay the effects of transferring the human beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) under in vitro, ex vivo, and finally in vivo conditions. Constructs encoding either beta2AR or LacZ were used in chronotropy studies with isolated myocytes, and transplanted as well as endogenous murine hearts. Murine embryonic cardiac myocytes were transiently transfected with plasmid constructs. The total percentage of myocytes spontaneously contracting was greater in beta2AR transfected cells, as compared with control cells (67 vs. 42+/-5%). In addition, the percentage of myocytes with chronotropic rates > 60 beats per minute (bpm) was higher in the beta2AR population, as compared with control cells (37 vs. 15+/-5%). The average contractile rate was greater in the beta2AR transfected myocytes at baseline (71+/-14 vs. 50+/-10 bpm; P < 0.001) as well as with the addition of 10(-)3 M isoproterenol (98+/-26 vs. 75+/-18 bpm; P < 0.05). Based on these results, a murine neonatal cardiac transplantation model was used to study the ex vivo effects of targeted expression of beta2AR. The constructs were transfected into the right atrium of transplanted hearts. Injection of the beta2AR construct increased the heart rate by approximately 40% (224+/-37 vs. 161+/-42 bpm; P < 0.005). Finally, the constructs were tested in vivo with injection into the right atrium of the endogenous heart. These results were similar to the ex vivo data with injection of the beta2AR constructs increasing the endogenous heart rates by approximately 40%, as compared with control injected hearts (550+/-42 vs. 390+/-37 bpm; P < 0.05). These studies demonstrate that local targeting of gene expression may be a feasible modality to regulate the cardiac pacemaking activity.
J M Edelberg, W C Aird, R D Rosenberg
Cyclin D1 belongs to a family of protein kinases that have been implicated in cell cycle regulation. Recent studies have demonstrated that elevated cyclin D1 levels correlate with decreased survival in human pancreatic cancer. In this study we expressed in a stable manner a cyclin D1 antisense cDNA construct in PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells. Expression of the antisense construct caused a decrease in cyclin D1 mRNA and protein levels and in cyclin D1-associated kinase activity. Antisense expressing clones displayed significantly increased doubling times, decreased anchorage-dependent and -independent basal growth, and complete loss of tumorigenicity in nude mice. EGF, FGF-2, and IGF-I enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in antisense expressing clones, but failed to stimulate their proliferation. In contrast, all three growth factors were mitogenic in parental cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of cisplatinum on cell proliferation was enhanced markedly in the antisense expressing clones. These findings indicate that cyclin D1 overexpression contributes to abnormal growth and tumorigenicity in human pancreatic cancer and to the resistance of pancreatic cancer to chemotherapeutic agents.
M Kornmann, N Arber, M Korc
Chronic macrophage-mediated inflammation is central to atherosclerosis. A role of the monocyte chemotactic and activating C-C chemokine JE/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 has been proposed. However, the human C-X-C chemokines growth-regulated oncogene (GROalpha) and IL-8, and their shared receptor, CXCR-2, also can be expressed at sites of chronic inflammation. Because we detected CXCR-2 in the intima of human atherosclerotic lesions, we examined the role of leukocyte CXCR-2 expression in affecting lesion cellularity. Atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice were irradiated, successfully repopulated with bone marrow cells that either lacked or expressed mIL-8RH (the homologue of CXCR-2), and fed an atherogenic diet for 16 wk. In recipients of mIL-8RH+/+ marrow, mIL-8RH colocalized with densely accumulated intimal MOMA-2 positive macrophages. In contrast, lesions in recipients of mIL-8RH-/- marrow lacked mIL-8RH, had little intimal MOMA-2 staining, and were less extensive. The mIL-8RH ligand KC/GROalpha was detected in the intima of all aortic atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, the capacity of leukocytes to express mIL-8RH, and associated intralesional expression of its ligands such as KC/GROalpha, mediated the intimal accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions of LDL receptor-deficient mice.
W A Boisvert, R Santiago, L K Curtiss, R A Terkeltaub
Congenic MRL-lpr mice homozygous and heterozygous for the IFN-gamma gene disruption were created to assess the role of this pleotropic cytokine on the lymphoaccumulation and lupus-like disease of Fas-defective mice. Early death was prevented, and glomerulonephritis severely reduced in IFN-gamma-/- mice. Hypergammaglobulinemia was maintained with a switch from IgG2a to IgG1 predominance, but the dramatic decrease in levels of the dominant IgG2a anti-dsDNA autoantibodies was not associated with a compensatory increase in TH2-associated IgG subclasses. Remarkably, early death and glomerulonephritis were also prevented in IFN-gamma+/- mice, although autoantibody levels and glomerular immune deposits were equivalent to IFN-gamma+/+ lpr mice, indicating the importance of additional locally-exerted disease-promoting effects of IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma-/- mice exhibited reduced lymphadenopathy concomitant to a decrease in DN B220(+) T cells. In vivo BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of DN B220(+) cells in IFN-gamma-/- vs. IFN-gamma+/+ lpr mice, while enhanced proliferation of all other T cell subsets was unaffected. Macrophages of IFN-gamma-/-lpr mice expressed markedly decreased levels of MHC class I and II molecules compared with controls. Moreover, the heightened expression of MHC class II molecules on proximal tubules of IFN-gamma+/+ lpr mice was significantly reduced in both IFN-gamma-/- and IFN-gamma+/- mice. The data indicate that IFN-gamma hyperproduction is required for lupus development, presumably by increasing MHC expression and autoantigen presentation to otherwise quiescent nontolerant anti-self T cells, and also by promoting local immune and inflammatory processes.
D Balomenos, R Rumold, A N Theofilopoulos
Interaction of bipartite Escherichia coli O157-derived verotoxins (VTs) 1 and 2 (Shiga toxin 1 and 2) with vascular endothelium is believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the thrombotic microangiopathy and ischemic lesions characteristic of hemolytic uremic syndrome and of E. coli O157-associated hemorrhagic colitis. We defined the effects of VTs on the expression of potent endothelial cell-derived regulators of vascular wall function, namely endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO). In quiescent bovine aortic endothelial cells, both VT1 and VT2, but not receptor-binding VT B-subunit which lacks N-glycosidase activity, induced concentration-dependent (0.1-10 nM) increases in steady state preproET-1 mRNA transcript levels, an effect that was maximal at 12-24 h. Metabolic-labeling experiments indicated that VTs increased preproET-1 mRNA transcript levels at concentrations that had trivial effects on nascent DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. In contrast to preproET-1, endothelin converting enzyme-1 and endothelial constitutive NO synthase mRNA transcript levels remained unchanged. Consistent with these findings, VTs failed to modulate immunoreactive endothelial constitutive NO synthase expression and basal and calcium-dependent L-[14C]arginine to L-[14C]citrulline conversion or the NO chemiluminescence signal. The plant-derived toxin ricin, which shows a similar molecular mechanism of enzymatic ribosomal modification to VTs, caused comparable effects on these endothelial vasomediators and metabolite incorporation, at 3 log orders lower concentrations. Nuclear transcription and actinomycin D chase experiments indicated that VTs stabilize labile preproET-1 mRNA transcripts in endothelial cells. Therefore, VTs potently increase select mRNA transcript levels in endothelial cells at concentrations of toxins that have minimal effects on protein synthesis. Perturbed expression of endothelial-derived vasomediators may play a pathophysiologic role in the microvascular dysfunction that is the hallmark of hemolytic uremic syndrome and hemorrhagic colitis.
M M Bitzan, Y Wang, J Lin, P A Marsden
Because CD1-restricted T cells lack CD4 but produce IFN-gamma in response to nonpeptide mycobacterial antigens, they could play a unique role in immunity to tuberculosis. We studied CD1-restricted T cells in the context of HIV infection by expanding CD4(-) T cell lines from 10 HIV-infected patients. Upon stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen or upon exposure to macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis, these T cell lines proliferated, produced IFN-gamma, and showed cytolytic T cell (CTL) activity against macrophages pulsed with mycobacterial antigen, findings consistent with a protective role against M. tuberculosis. Anti-CD1b antibodies abrogated T cell proliferation, IFN-gamma production, and CTL activity, demonstrating that these T cells are CD1 restricted. IFN-gamma production in response to M. tuberculosis was enhanced by antitransforming growth factor-beta in 8/10 lines, and by IL-15 in 2/10 lines. IFN-gamma production was augmented in a nonantigen-specific manner by IL-12 in 4/8 lines. When live HIV was cocultured with CD1-restricted T cell lines, p24 antigen and proviral DNA were not detected, indicating that the T cells were not infectable with HIV. Vaccination strategies aimed at activation and expansion of M. tuberculosis-reactive CD1-restricted T cells in HIV-infected patients may constitute a novel means to provide protection against tuberculosis, while minimizing the risk of enhancing HIV replication through stimulation of CD4(+) cells.
J Gong, S Stenger, J A Zack, B E Jones, G C Bristol, R L Modlin, P J Morrissey, P F Barnes
In normoxic conditions, myocardial glucose utilization is inhibited when alternative oxidizable substrates are available. In this work we show that this inhibition is relieved in the presence of cAMP, and we studied the mechanism of this effect. Working rat hearts were perfused with 5.5 mM glucose alone (controls) or together with 5 mM lactate, 5 mM beta-hydroxybutyrate, or 1 mM palmitate. The effects of 0.1 mM chlorophenylthio-cAMP (CPT-cAMP), a cAMP analogue, were studied in each group. Glucose uptake, flux through 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity were inhibited in hearts perfused with alternative substrates, and addition of CPT-cAMP completely relieved the inhibition. The mechanism by which CPT-cAMP induced a preferential utilization of glucose was related to an increased glucose uptake and glycolysis, and to an activation of phosphorylase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, the well-known stimulator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. In vitro phosphorylation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase by cAMP-dependent protein kinase increased the Vmax of the enzyme and decreased its sensitivity to the inhibitor citrate. Therefore, in hearts perfused with various oxidizable substrates, cAMP induces a preferential utilization of glucose by a concerted stimulation of glucose transport, glycolysis, glycogen breakdown, and glucose oxidation.
C Depre, S Ponchaut, J Deprez, L Maisin, L Hue
The role of the indirect allorecognition pathway in acute allograft rejection has been documented both in organ recipients and in experimental models. However, it is unknown whether self-restricted recognition of donor alloantigens also contributes to chronic allograft rejection. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between allopeptide reactivity, epitope spreading, and chronic rejection. Using synthetic peptides corresponding to the hypervariable region of 32 HLA-DR alleles, we have followed the specificity of self-restricted T cell alloresponses to the donor in a population of 34 heart allograft recipients. T cells from sequential samples of blood collected from the patients up to 36 mo after transplantation were studied in limiting dilution analysis for allopeptide reactivity. The incidence of coronary artery vasculopathy (CAV) was significantly higher in patients who displayed persistent alloreactivity late after transplantation than in patients who showed no alloreactivity after the first 6 mo after transplantation. Both intra- and intermolecular spreading of epitopes was observed with an increased frequency in patients developing CAV in less than 2 yr, compared with patients without CAV; this suggests that diversification of the immune response against the graft contributes to chronic rejection. These data provide a strategy for identifying patients at risk of developing CAV and a rationale for therapeutic intervention aimed to prevent the progression of the rejection process.
R Ciubotariu, Z Liu, A I Colovai, E Ho, S Itescu, S Ravalli, M A Hardy, R Cortesini, E A Rose, N Suciu-Foca
Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, is capable of suppressing the growth of various tumor cell lines when expressed ectopically. In this report, we investigated the biochemical mechanism by which decorin inhibits cell cycle progression. In A431 squamous carcinoma cells, decorin proteoglycan or protein core induced a marked growth suppression, when either exogenously added or endogenously produced by a transgene. Decorin caused rapid phosphorylation of the EGF receptor and a concurrent activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal pathway. This led to a protracted induction of endogenous p21, a potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and ultimate cell cycle arrest. Biglycan, a related proteoglycan, had no effect. Moreover, decorin activated the EGF receptor/MAP kinase/ p21 axis in cell lines of various histogenetic backgrounds. These results provide the first evidence that EGF and decorin converge functionally to regulate the cell cycle through activation of a common pathway which ultimately leads to growth suppression.
D K Moscatello, M Santra, D M Mann, D J McQuillan, A J Wong, R V Iozzo
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce differentiation of osteoblast and chondroblast lineage cells from uncommitted mesenchymal precursors. Because estrogen has potent osteochondrogenic actions, we investigated its effect on BMP production in two estrogen-responsive, human immortalized cell lines (hFOB/ER3 and hFOB/ER9) that display the mature osteoblast phenotype. These cell lines were produced by stable transfection of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene into immortalized fetal osteoblasts at low ( approximately 800 ER/ nucleus) and at high ( approximately 3, 900 ER/nucleus) levels, respectively. As assessed by reverse transcriptase PCR, treatment with 17beta-estradiol (10(-)10 - 10(-)7 M) increased steady-state levels of BMP-6 mRNA dose dependently by twofold in the hFOB/ER3 cells and by over threefold in the hFOB/ER9 cells. Messenger RNA levels for transforming growth factors-beta1 and -beta2 and BMPs-1 through -5 and -7 levels were unchanged. The results were confirmed by sequence determination of the PCR product and by Northern blot analysis for total RNA. 17beta-estradiol increased BMP-6 protein production sixfold by Western analysis. Cotreatment with antiestrogens (ICI 182,780 or 4-hydroxytamoxifen) antagonized the effects of 17beta-estradiol. These data suggest that some of the skeletal effects of estrogen on bone and cartilage may be mediated by increased production of BMP-6 by osteoblasts.
D J Rickard, L C Hofbauer, S K Bonde, F Gori, T C Spelsberg, B L Riggs
Active reabsorption of urea appears in the initial IMCD (IMCD1) of rats fed a low-protein diet. To determine whether active urea transport also occurs in the deepest IMCD subsegment, the IMCD3, we isolated IMCDs from the base (IMCD1), middle (IMCD2), and tip (IMCD3) regions of the inner medulla from rats fed a normal protein diet and water ad libitum. IMCDs were perfused with identical perfusate and bath solutions. A significant rate of net urea secretion was present only in IMCD3s. Replacing perfusate Na+ with NMDG+ reversibly inhibited net urea secretion but replacing bath Na+ with NMDG+ or perfusate Cl- with gluconate- had no effect. Net urea secretion was significantly inhibited by: (a) 250 microM phloretin (perfusate); (b) 100 nM triamterene (perfusate); (c) 1 mM ouabain (bath); and (d) cooling the tubule to 23 degrees C. Net urea secretion was significantly stimulated by 10 nM vasopressin (bath). Next, we perfused IMCD3s from water diuretic rats (given food ad libitum) and found a significant, fivefold increase in net urea secretion. In summary, we identified a secondary active, secretory urea transport process in IMCD3s of normal rats which is upregulated in water diuretic rats. This new urea transporter may be a sodium- urea antiporter.
A Kato, J M Sands
Cyclophosphamide (CTX) increases the antitumor effectiveness of adoptive immunotherapy in mice, and combined immunotherapy regimens are now used in some clinical trials. However, the mechanisms underlying the synergistic antitumor responses are still unclear. The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate the antitumor response to CTX and adoptive immunotherapy in mice bearing four different syngeneic tumors (two responsive in vivo to CTX and two resistant); and (b) to define the mechanism(s) of the CTX-immunotherapy synergism. Tumor-bearing DBA/2 mice were treated with a single injection of CTX followed by an intravenous infusion of tumor-immune spleen cells. In all the four tumor models, a single CTX injection resulted in an impressive antitumor response to the subsequent injection of spleen cells from mice immunized with homologous tumor cells independently of the in vivo response to CTX alone. Detailed analysis of the antitumor mechanisms in mice transplanted with metastatic Friend leukemia cells revealed that (a) the effectiveness of this combined therapy was dependent neither on the CTX-induced reduction of tumor burden nor on CTX-induced inhibition of some putative tumor-induced suppressor cells; (b) the CTX/immune cells' regimen strongly protected the mice from subsequent injection of FLC, provided the animals were also preinoculated with inactivated homologous tumor together with the immune spleen cells; (c) CD4(+) T immune lymphocytes were the major cell type responsible for the antitumor activity; (d) the combined therapy was ineffective in mice treated with antiasialo-GM1 or anti-IFN-alpha/beta antibodies; (e) spleen and/ or bone marrow cells from CTX-treated mice produced soluble factors that assisted in proliferation of the spleen cells. Altogether, these results indicate that CTX acts via bystander effects, possibly through production of T cell growth factors occurring during the rebound events after drug administration, which may sustain the proliferation, survival, and activity of the transferred immune T lymphocytes. Thus, our findings indicate the need for reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects of CTX and adoptive immunotherapy, and may provide new insights into the definition of new and more effective strategies with chemotherapy and adoptive immunotherapy for cancer patients.
E Proietti, G Greco, B Garrone, S Baccarini, C Mauri, M Venditti, D Carlei, F Belardelli
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a potent vasoconstrictor and growth promoter. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using the nonselective radioligand [125I]ANG II and subtype-selective competing compounds demonstrated the presence of both ANG II receptor (AT)1 and AT2 receptor recognition sites. In addition, a relatively small population of apparently non-AT1/non-AT2 sites was identified that may represent a novel high affinity ANG II recognition site in human placenta. Using placental membrane preparations, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123177 failed to compete for [3H]ANG II binding at relevant concentrations, whereas the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan competed in a monophasic manner for all the specific binding, suggesting that the non-AT1/non-AT2 recognition site identified using autoradiography may be a cytosolic binding site. AT1 receptor binding was significantly reduced (P < 0. 02) in intraeuterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies. Western blot analysis confirmed this showing a reduction in AT1 receptor protein. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry revealed that AT1 receptor mRNA and protein were localized throughout pregnancy in the cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, and extravillous trophoblast, as well as in or around the blood vessels of placental villi. The intensity of the hybridization signal for AT1 receptor mRNA over the syncytium was reduced in IUGR. ANG II evoked a rapid and concentration-dependent release of NO in first trimester cytotrophoblast-like cells that was abolished by the inclusion of the competitive NOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. Neither losartan nor PD123177 alone significantly inhibited ANG II-evoked NO release, and when cells were stimulated with ANG II in the presence of losartan (10 microM) and PD123177 (10 microM) in combination, NO release was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05). These observations also suggest, for the first time, the existence of a cross-talk between AT1 or AT2 receptors in trophoblast and that the reduction in placental AT1 receptors in IUGR may, in part, account for poor placental function in this disorder.
X Li, M Shams, J Zhu, A Khalig, M Wilkes, M Whittle, N Barnes, A Ahmed
Bacterial LPS is a pluripotent agonist for PMNs. Although it does not activate the NADPH-dependent oxidase directly, LPS renders PMNs more responsive to other stimuli, a phenomenon known as "priming." Since the mechanism of LPS-dependent priming is incompletely understood, we investigated its effects on assembly and activation of the NADPH oxidase. LPS pretreatment increased superoxide (O2-) generation nearly 10-fold in response to N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP). In a broken-cell O2--generating system, activity was increased in plasma membrane-rich fractions and concomitantly decreased in specific granule-rich fractions from LPS-treated cells. Oxidation-reduction spectroscopy and flow cytometry indicated LPS increased plasma membrane association of flavocytochrome b558. Immunoblots of plasma membrane vesicles from LPS-treated PMNs demonstrated translocation of p47-phox but not of p67-phox or Rac2. However, PMNs treated sequentially with LPS and fMLP showed a three- to sixfold increase (compared with either agent alone) in plasma membrane-associated p47-phox, p67-phox, and Rac2, and translocation paralleled augmented O2- generation by intact PMNs. LPS treatment caused limited phosphorylation of p47-phox, and plasma membrane-enriched fractions from LPS- and/or fMLP-treated cells contained fewer acidic species of p47-phox than did those from cells treated with PMA. Taken together, these studies suggest that redistribution of NADPH oxidase components may underlie LPS priming of the respiratory burst.
F R DeLeo, J Renee, S McCormick, M Nakamura, M Apicella, J P Weiss, W M Nauseef
The vascular pathophysiology of preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder unique to human pregnancy, has been postulated to be due to endothelial dysfunction, primarily manifest as deficient nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. We evaluated contraction (KCl and arginine vasopressin [AVP]) and dilation (acetylcholine and bradykinin) in small resistance-size omental arteries obtained during surgery from women with preeclampsia, postulating that these vessels would exhibit augmented contraction and diminished endothelium-dependent relaxation, most likely due to decreased NO synthesis. For comparison, vessels were also obtained from normotensive gravidas, pregnant women with chronic hypertension, or with chronic hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia, as well as from premenopausal nonpregnant controls. Vessels of approximately 200 micron in internal diameter were studied in vitro using a Mulvany-Halpern myograph. Maximal contraction due to either KCl or AVP was significantly augmented in vessels from women with preeclampsia; these vessels all exhibited endothelium- and cyclooxygenase-dependent phasic oscillations while vessels from all other groups exhibited only tonic contractions. Acetylcholine and bradykinin both led to dose- and endothelium-dependent relaxation which was unaffected by inhibitors of NO synthesis. Responses to bradykinin were similar in vessels from normal pregnant and preeclamptic women while those to acetylcholine were absent in vessels from women with preeclampsia. These data suggest specific defects in resistance-artery endothelium from women with preeclampsia.
I F Pascoal, M D Lindheimer, C Nalbantian-Brandt, J G Umans
The M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine in low doses decreases resting heart rate; this effect declines with age (Poller, U., G. Nedelka, J. Radke, K. Pönicke, and O.-E. Brodde. 1997. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 29:187-193). To study possible mechanisms underlying this effect, we assessed (a) in six young (26 yr old) and six older volunteers (61 yr old), pirenzepine effects (0.32 and 0.64 mg intravenous [i.v.] bolus) on isoprenaline-induced heart rate increases; (b) in five heart transplant recipients, pirenzepine effects (0.05-10 mg i.v. bolus) on resting heart rate in the recipient's native and transplanted sinus nodes; and (c) in right atria from 39 patients of different ages (5 d-76 yr) undergoing open heart surgery, M2 muscarinic receptor density (by [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine binding) and adenylyl cyclase activity. (a) Pirenzepine at both doses decreased heart rate in young volunteers significantly more than in older volunteers; (b) pirenzepine (< 1 mg) decreased resting heart rate in the recipient's native but not transplanted sinus node; and (c) M2 receptor density and carbachol-induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity decreased significantly with the age of the patients. We conclude that pirenzepine decreases heart rate via inhibition of presynaptic M1 autoreceptors, thereby releasing endogenous acetylcholine, and that the heart rate-decreasing effect of acetylcholine declines with age because right atrial M2 receptor density and function decrease.
O E Brodde, U Konschak, K Becker, F Rüter, U Poller, J Jakubetz, J Radke, H R Zerkowski
Platelet aggregation contributes to arresting bleeding at wound sites, but may cause occlusion of atherosclerotic vessels, thus curtailing blood flow to vital organs. According to current dogma, the integrin alphaIIbbeta3 plays an exclusive role in linking platelets to one another through interactions with fibrinogen or vWf. We demonstrate here that, depending on shearing flow conditions, this process may require vWf binding to glycoprotein Ibalpha, even when alphaIIbbeta3 is competent to bind adhesive ligands. Platelet activation induced solely by high shear stress is initiated by glycoprotein Ibalpha interaction with vWf, but results in aggregation only if the latter can bind concurrently to alphaIIbbeta3. In contrast, platelets exposed to high shear rate after activation by exogenous agonists such as ADP and epinephrine can aggregate when fibrinogen is the alphaIIbbeta3 adhesive ligand, yet only if vWf binding to glycoprotein Ibalpha can also occur. Thus, the latter interaction appears to provide a bond with biomechanical properties necessary to overcome the effects of high shear rate and initiate interplatelet cohesion. These findings highlight the distinct function of two adhesive receptors mediating platelet aggregation under varying fluid dynamic conditions, and modify the current interpretation of a crucial event in hemostasis and thrombosis.
S Goto, Y Ikeda, E Saldívar, Z M Ruggeri
In congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens patients, the T5 allele at the polymorphic Tn locus in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is a frequent disease mutation with incomplete penetrance. This T5 allele will result in a high proportion of CFTR transcripts that lack exon 9, whose translation products will not contribute to apical chloride channel activity. Besides the polymorphic Tn locus, more than 120 polymorphisms have been described in the CFTR gene. We hypothesized that the combination of particular alleles at several polymorphic loci might result in less functional or even insufficient CFTR protein. Analysis of three polymorphic loci with frequent alleles in the general population showed that, in addition to the known effect of the Tn locus, the quantity and quality of CFTR transcripts and/or proteins was affected by two other polymorphic loci: (TG)m and M470V. On a T7 background, the (TG)11 allele gave a 2.8-fold increase in the proportion of CFTR transcripts that lacked exon 9, and (TG)12 gave a sixfold increase, compared with the (TG)10 allele. T5 CFTR genes derived from patients were found to carry a high number of TG repeats, while T5 CFTR genes derived from healthy CF fathers harbored a low number of TG repeats. Moreover, it was found that M470 CFTR proteins matured more slowly, and that they had a 1.7-fold increased intrinsic chloride channel activity compared with V470 CFTR proteins, suggesting that the M470V locus might also play a role in the partial penetrance of T5 as a disease mutation. Such polyvariant mutant genes could explain why apparently normal CFTR genes cause disease. Moreover, they might be responsible for variation in the phenotypic expression of CFTR mutations, and be of relevance in other genetic diseases.
H Cuppens, W Lin, M Jaspers, B Costes, H Teng, A Vankeerberghen, M Jorissen, G Droogmans, I Reynaert, M Goossens, B Nilius, J J Cassiman
In this study, baseline plasma from 619 persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (median CD4+ lymphocyte count -21/microl) who participated in a trial to determine the efficacy of oral ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease prevention were evaluated for CMV DNA load by qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and correlated with the development of CMV disease and survival. For participants without detectable plasma CMV DNA, the 12-mo Kaplan-Meier CMV disease event rate was 14% and 1% for the placebo and ganciclovir groups, respectively (P < 0.001). For PCR positive participants, CMV disease developed in 43% of placebo and 26% ganciclovir recipients (P < 0.017). Among placebo recipients, CMV PCR positivity was associated with a 3.4-fold increased risk of developing CMV disease (P < 0.001) whereas CD4+ lymphocyte count was not a useful predictor (P = 0.47). A positive plasma CMV DNA PCR was also associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk of death. Each log10 increase in baseline CMV DNA load was associated with a 3.1-fold increase in CMV disease (P < 0.001) and a 2.2-fold increase in mortality (P < 0.001). These data indicate that the risk of developing CMV disease and death in persons with advanced AIDS is directly related to the quantity of CMV DNA in plasma, and is a better predictor than CD4+ lymphocyte count in this population.
S A Spector, R Wong, K Hsia, M Pilcher, M J Stempien
We have isolated a stable, transplantable, and small glucagonoma (MSL-G-AN) associated with abrupt onset of severe anorexia occurring 2-3 wk after subcutaneous transplantation. Before onset of anorexia, food consumption is comparable to untreated controls. Anorexia is followed by adipsia and weight loss, and progresses rapidly in severity, eventually resulting in reduction of food and water intake of 100 and 80%, respectively. During the anorectic phase, the rats eventually become hypoglycemic and hypothermic. The tumor-associated anorexia shows no sex difference, and is not affected by bilateral abdominal vagotomy, indicating a direct central effect. The adipose satiety factor leptin, known to suppress food intake by reducing hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels, was not found to be expressed by the tumor, and circulating leptin levels were reduced twofold in the anorectic phase. A highly significant increase in hypothalamic (arcuate nucleus) NPY mRNA levels was found in anorectic rats compared with control animals. Since elevated hypothalamic NPY is among the most potent stimulators of feeding and a characteristic of most animal models of hyperphagia, we conclude that the MSL-G-AN glucagonoma releases circulating factor(s) that overrides the hypothalamic NPY-ergic system, thereby eliminating the orexigenic effect of NPY. We hypothesize a possible central role of proglucagon-derived peptides in the observed anorexia.
P B Jensen, N Blume, J D Mikkelsen, P J Larsen, H I Jensen, J J Holst, O D Madsen