CD36 mediates the transfer of fatty acids (FAs) across the plasma membranes of muscle and adipose cells, thus playing an important role in regulating peripheral FA metabolism in vivo. In the proximal intestine, CD36 is localized in abundant quantities on the apical surface of epithelial cells, a pattern similar to that of other proteins implicated in the uptake of dietary FAs. To define the role of CD36 in the intestine, we examined FA utilization and lipoprotein secretion by WT and CD36-null mice in response to acute and chronic fat feeding. CD36-null mice given a fat bolus by gavage or fed a high-fat diet accumulated neutral lipid in the proximal intestine, which indicated abnormal lipid processing. Using a model in which mice were equipped with lymph fistulae, we obtained evidence of defective lipoprotein secretion by directly measuring lipid output. The secretion defect appeared to reflect an impaired ability of CD36-null enterocytes to efficiently synthesize triacylglycerols from dietary FAs in the endoplasmic reticulum. In the plasma of intact mice, the reduced intestinal lipid secretion was masked by slow clearance of intestine-derived lipoproteins. The impaired clearance occurred despite normal lipoprotein lipase activity and likely reflected feedback inhibition of the lipase by FAs due to their defective removal from the plasma. We conclude that CD36 is important for both secretion and clearance of intestinal lipoproteins. CD36 deficiency results in hypertriglyceridemia both in the postprandial and fasting states and in humans may constitute a risk factor for diet-induced type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Victor A. Drover, Mohammad Ajmal, Fatiha Nassir, Nicholas O. Davidson, Andromeda M. Nauli, Daisy Sahoo, Patrick Tso, Nada A. Abumrad
Cardiac pressure load stimulates hypertrophy, often leading to chamber dilation and dysfunction. ROS contribute to this process. Here we show that uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase–3 (NOS3) plays a major role in pressure load–induced myocardial ROS and consequent chamber remodeling/hypertrophy. Chronic transverse aortic constriction (TAC; for 3 and 9 weeks) in control mice induced marked cardiac hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. Mice lacking NOS3 displayed modest and concentric hypertrophy to TAC with preserved function. NOS3–/– TAC hearts developed less fibrosis, myocyte hypertrophy, and fetal gene re-expression (B-natriuretic peptide and α–skeletal actin). ROS, nitrotyrosine, and gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) zymogen activity markedly increased in control TAC, but not in NOS3–/– TAC, hearts. TAC induced NOS3 uncoupling in the heart, reflected by reduced NOS3 dimer and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), increased NOS3-dependent generation of ROS, and lowered Ca2+-dependent NOS activity. Cotreatment with BH4 prevented NOS3 uncoupling and inhibited ROS, resulting in concentric nondilated hypertrophy. Mice given the antioxidant tetrahydroneopterin as a control did not display changes in TAC response. Thus, pressure overload triggers NOS3 uncoupling as a prominent source of myocardial ROS that contribute to dilatory remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Reversal of this process by BH4 suggests a potential treatment to ameliorate the pathophysiology of chronic pressure-induced hypertrophy.
Eiki Takimoto, Hunter C. Champion, Manxiang Li, Shuxun Ren, E. Rene Rodriguez, Barbara Tavazzi, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Nazareno Paolocci, Kathleen L. Gabrielson, Yibin Wang, David A. Kass
With-no-lysine (WNK) kinases are highly expressed along the mammalian distal nephron. Mutations in either WNK1 or WNK4 cause familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt), suggesting that the protein products converge on a final common pathway. We showed previously that WNK4 downregulates thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) activity, an effect suppressed by WNK1. Here we investigated the mechanisms by which WNK1 and WNK4 interact to regulate ion transport. We report that WNK1 suppresses the WNK4 effect on NCC activity and associates with WNK4 in a protein complex involving the kinase domains. Although a kinase-dead WNK1 also associates with WNK4, it fails to suppress WNK4-mediated NCC inhibition; the WNK1 kinase domain alone, however, is not sufficient to block the WNK4 effect. The carboxyterminal 222 amino acids of WNK4 are sufficient to inhibit NCC, but this fragment is not blocked by WNK1. Instead, WNK1 inhibition requires an intact WNK4 kinase domain, the region that binds to WNK1. In summary, these data show that: (a) the WNK4 carboxyl terminus mediates NCC suppression, (b) the WNK1 kinase domain interacts with the WNK4 kinase domain, and (c) WNK1 inhibition of WNK4 is dependent on WNK1 catalytic activity and an intact WNK1 protein. These findings provide insight into the complex interrelationships between WNK1 and WNK4 and provide a molecular basis for FHHt.
Chao-Ling Yang, Xiaoman Zhu, Zhaohong Wang, Arohan R. Subramanya, David H. Ellison
Nitrite represents a circulating and tissue storage form of NO whose bioactivation is mediated by the enzymatic action of xanthine oxidoreductase, nonenzymatic disproportionation, and reduction by deoxyhemoglobin, myoglobin, and tissue heme proteins. Because the rate of NO generation from nitrite is linearly dependent on reductions in oxygen and pH levels, we hypothesized that nitrite would be reduced to NO in ischemic tissue and exert NO-dependent protective effects. Solutions of sodium nitrite were administered in the setting of hepatic and cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. In hepatic I/R, nitrite exerted profound dose-dependent protective effects on cellular necrosis and apoptosis, with highly significant protective effects observed at near-physiological nitrite concentrations. In myocardial I/R injury, nitrite reduced cardiac infarct size by 67%. Consistent with hypoxia-dependent nitrite bioactivation, nitrite was reduced to NO, S-nitrosothiols, N-nitros-amines, and iron-nitrosylated heme proteins within 1–30 minutes of reperfusion. Nitrite-mediated protection of both the liver and the heart was dependent on NO generation and independent of eNOS and heme oxygenase-1 enzyme activities. These results suggest that nitrite is a biological storage reserve of NO subserving a critical function in tissue protection from ischemic injury. These studies reveal an unexpected and novel therapy for diseases such as myocardial infarction, organ preservation and transplantation, and shock states.
Mark R. Duranski, James J.M. Greer, Andre Dejam, Sathya Jaganmohan, Neil Hogg, William Langston, Rakesh P. Patel, Shaw-Fang Yet, Xunde Wang, Christopher G. Kevil, Mark T. Gladwin, David J. Lefer
Infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease) is characterized by spontaneous episodes of subperiosteal new bone formation along 1 or more bones commencing within the first 5 months of life. A genome-wide screen for genetic linkage in a large family with an autosomal dominant form of Caffey disease (ADC) revealed a locus on chromosome 17q21 (LOD score, 6.78). Affected individuals and obligate carriers were heterozygous for a missense mutation (3040C↠T) in exon 41 of the gene encoding the α1(I) chain of type I collagen (COL1A1), altering residue 836 (R836C) in the triple-helical domain of this chain. The same mutation was identified in affected members of 2 unrelated, smaller families with ADC, but not in 2 prenatal cases and not in more than 300 chromosomes from healthy individuals. Fibroblast cultures from an affected individual produced abnormal disulfide-bonded dimeric α1(I) chains. Dermal collagen fibrils of the same individual were larger, more variable in shape and size, and less densely packed than those in control samples. Individuals bearing the mutation, whether they had experienced an episode of cortical hyperostosis or not, had joint hyperlaxity, hyperextensible skin, and inguinal hernias resembling symptoms of a mild form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III. These findings extend the spectrum of COL1A1-related diseases to include a hyperostotic disorder.
Robert C. Gensure, Outi Mäkitie, Catherine Barclay, Catherine Chan, Steven R. DePalma, Murat Bastepe, Hilal Abuzahra, Richard Couper, Stefan Mundlos, David Sillence, Leena Ala Kokko, Jonathan G. Seidman, William G. Cole, Harald Jüppner
Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial anticoagulant cofactor that promotes thrombin-mediated formation of activated protein C (APC). We have found that the N-terminal lectin-like domain (D1) of TM has unique antiinflammatory properties. TM, via D1, binds high-mobility group-B1 DNA-binding protein (HMGB1), a factor closely associated with necrotic cell damage following its release from the nucleus, thereby preventing in vitro leukocyte activation, in vivo UV irradiation–induced cutaneous inflammation, and in vivo lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality. Our data also demonstrate antiinflammatory properties of a peptide spanning D1 of TM and suggest its therapeutic potential. These findings highlight a novel mechanism, i.e., sequestration of mediators, through which an endothelial cofactor, TM, suppresses inflammation quite distinctly from its anticoagulant cofactor activity, thereby preventing the interaction of these mediators with cell surface receptors on effector cells in the vasculature.
Kazuhiro Abeyama, David M. Stern, Yuji Ito, Ko-ichi Kawahara, Yasushi Yoshimoto, Motoyuki Tanaka, Tomonori Uchimura, Nobuo Ida, Yoshiaki Yamazaki, Shingo Yamada, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Iino, Noboru Taniguchi, Ikuro Maruyama
Endogenous cannabinoids acting at CB1 receptors stimulate appetite, and CB1 antagonists show promise in the treatment of obesity. CB1–/– mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity even though their caloric intake is similar to that of wild-type mice, suggesting that endocannabinoids also regulate fat metabolism. Here, we investigated the possible role of endocannabinoids in the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. Activation of CB1 in mice increases the hepatic gene expression of the lipogenic transcription factor SREBP-1c and its targets acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Treatment with a CB1 agonist also increases de novo fatty acid synthesis in the liver or in isolated hepatocytes, which express CB1. High-fat diet increases hepatic levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide), CB1 density, and basal rates of fatty acid synthesis, and the latter is reduced by CB1 blockade. In the hypothalamus, where FAS inhibitors elicit anorexia, SREBP-1c and FAS expression are similarly affected by CB1 ligands. We conclude that anandamide acting at hepatic CB1 contributes to diet-induced obesity and that the FAS pathway may be a common molecular target for central appetitive and peripheral metabolic regulation.
Douglas Osei-Hyiaman, Michael DePetrillo, Pál Pacher, Jie Liu, Svetlana Radaeva, Sándor Bátkai, Judith Harvey-White, Ken Mackie, László Offertáler, Lei Wang, George Kunos
Partial restoration of insulin receptor Insr expression in brain, liver, and pancreatic β cells is sufficient for rescuing Insr knockout mice from neonatal death, preventing diabetes ketoacidosis, and normalizing life span and reproductive function. However, the transgenically rescued mice (referred to as L1) have marked hyperinsulinemia, and approximately 30% develop late-onset type 2 diabetes. Analyses of protein expression indicated that L1 mice had modestly reduced Insr content but normal insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the liver. Conversely, L1 mice had a near complete ablation of Insr protein product in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, which was associated with a failure to undergo insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation in the hypothalamus. To test whether reconstitution of insulin signaling in the liver is sufficient for restoring in vivo hepatic insulin action, we performed euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies in conscious L1 and WT mice. During the clamp, L1 mice required an approximately 50% lower rate of glucose infusion than did WT controls, while the rate of glucose disappearance was not significantly altered. Conversely, the rate of glucose production was increased approximately 2-fold in L1 mice. Thus, restoration of hepatic insulin signaling in Insr knockout mice fails to normalize the in vivo response to insulin.
Haruka Okamoto, Silvana Obici, Domenico Accili, Luciano Rossetti
Insulin exerts its potent effects on hepatic glucose fluxes via direct and indirect mechanisms. Whereas a liver-specific insulin receptor (IR) knockout (LIRKO) mouse exhibits glucose intolerance as well as insulin resistance, it is unclear whether a more acute decrease in the expression of hepatic IR would be sufficient to induce hepatic insulin resistance. Here we report that the downregulation of hepatic IR expression by up to 95% does not modify hepatic insulin action. The i.p. administration (2 injections over 1 week) of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASO) directed to reduce insulin expression downregulated hepatic IR expression in C57BL6J mice. A high dose of IR-ASO decreased IR protein approximately 95%, while a control-ASO failed to modify IR expression. At this dose, the IR-ASO also decreased IR expression in adipose tissue but did not significantly decrease IR expression in hypothalamus or skeletal muscle. Insulin action was assessed with insulin clamp studies in conscious mice. The rate of glucose infusion during the clamp studies was comparable in control-ASO– and IR-ASO–treated mice. Importantly, the depletion of liver IR protein markedly impaired downstream insulin signaling in the liver, but it failed to modify the rate of glucose production. Thus, near ablation of liver IR does not alter insulin action on glucose production.
Christoph Buettner, Rima Patel, Evan D. Muse, Sanjay Bhanot, Brett P. Monia, Rob McKay, Silvana Obici, Luciano Rossetti
Current models of T cell memory implicate a critical role for IL-7 in the effector-to-memory transition, raising the possibility that IL-7 therapy might enhance vaccine responses. IL-7 has not been studied, to our knowledge, before now for adjuvant activity. We administered recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) to mice during immunization against the male antigen HY and compared these results with those obtained from mice immunized with rhIL-2 and rhIL-15. Administration of rhIL-7 or rhIL-15, but not rhIL-2, increased effector cells directed against these dominant antigens and dramatically enhanced CD8+ effectors to subdominant antigens. The mechanisms by which the cytokines augmented effector pool generation were multifactorial and included rhIL-7–mediated costimulation and rhIL-15–mediated augmentation of the proliferative burst. The contraction phase of the antigen-specific response was exaggerated in cytokine-treated mice; however, CD8+ memory pools in rhIL-7– or rhIL-15–treated groups demonstrated superior long-term survival resulting in quantitative advantages that remained long after the cytokines were discontinued, as demonstrated by improved survival after challenge with an HY-expressing tumor undertaken several weeks after cytokine cessation. These results confirm the adjuvant activity of rhIL-15 and demonstrate that rhIL-7 also serves as a potent vaccine adjuvant that broadens immunity by augmenting responses to subdominant antigens and improving the survival of the CD8+ T cell memory pool.
Fraia Melchionda, Terry J. Fry, Matthew J. Milliron, Melissa A. McKirdy, Yutaka Tagaya, Crystal L. Mackall
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