The respiratory distress syndrome is believed to be due to insufficient surfactant. It is known that there is a greater incidence of the respiratory distress syndrome among infants delivered by cesarean section before labor than among those delivered after labor at the same gestational age. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of labor on the production of pulmonary surfactant.
Seamus A. Rooney, Laurice I. Gobran, Theresa S. Wai-Lee
Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) was used to study normal serum and serum from patients with septicemia caused by a variety of bacteria and by Candida albicans. The gas chromatograms of seven sera from six patients with septicemia due to C. albicans were found to be significantly and reproducibly different from those of normal sera. Chromatograms of serum from 19 bacteremic patients were indistinguishable from normals. The major peaks present in chromatograms of normal sera were identified by GLC and mass spectroscopy as the methyl esters of palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and stearic acids. In addition to these peaks, serum from patients with candidemia contained abnormal peaks that were also present in cultures of C. albicans grown in normal serum and in washed C. albicans harvested from cultures in yeast nitrogen base broth. Chromatograms from 11 cases of mucosal candidates differed little from normal and were easily distinguished from those of fungemia patients. Chromatograms of serum from two of four patients with deep-invasive candidiasis were indistinguishable from those of fungemia and reverted to normal after infections were eradicated.
Geraldine G. Miller, Michael W. Witwer, Abraham I. Braude, Charles E. Davis
Human granulocyte adhesion to glass capillary tubes was tested in the presence of agents that increase intracellular levels of cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Adhesion was significantly reduced by 10-3-10-4 M dibutyryl cAMP, 10-4-10-6 M prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), 10-4-10-6 M histamine, or 10-3 M theophylline. Adhesion was not suppressed by 10-4 M theophylline unless it was combined with PGE1 or histamine. Eosinophil and basophil adhesion was especially sensitive to suppression by the above agents. These findings suggest that intracellular cAMP may play a role in regulation of adhesiveness of human basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils.
Richard E. Bryant, Marilyn C. Sutgliffe
Leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro was studied by a modification of the Boyden technic in 46 thermally injured patients. All patients demonstrated a decrease in leukocyte migration through a Nuclepore filter toward a standard casein-serum chemotactic agent. Leukocyte chemotaxis was inversely correlated with burn size during the first 72 h after injury. After 72 h, leukocyte chemotaxis directly correlated with clinical status and was highly predictive for ultimate mortality. Since mortality was largely due to infection, these findings suggest that suppression of leukocyte chemotaxis may explain the susceptibility to opportunistic infection in thermally injured patients.
Glenn D. Warden, Arthur D. Mason Jr., Basil A. Pruitt Jr.
Isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were found to contain two distinct superoxide dismutases, electrophoretically identical to the superoxide dismutases found in other human tissues. One is inhibited by cyanide and is located in the cytosol. The other is not inhibited by cyanide and is mitochondrial. These findings disagree with reports by other laboratories, which did not find the cyanide-sensitive cytoplasmic enzyme. The superoxide dismutase-containing preparation of leukocytes released large amounts of superoxide into the medium when the cells were phagocytizing, suggesting that, if the cell population is homogeneous, superoxide production probably takes place on the outer surface of the cell membrane, in addition to inside the phagocytic vacuole.
Marvin L. Salin, Joe M. McCord
This study examined the immunologic specificity of transfer factor using a chromatographically purified transfer factor preparation. The specificity of transfer was examined utilizing immunity to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and tuberculin. Transfer factor prepared from a donor immune to KLH successfully transferred KLH skin test reactivity to 10 out of 10 recipients. In contrast, comparable amounts of transfer factor from two donors not immune to KLH failed to transfer immunity to KLH in 11 recipients despite evidence for successful transfer of tuberculin reactivity. Unlike prior studies with a variety of antigens, the immunity to KLH in recipients of KLH immune transfer factor appeared comparable to that of the donor since both could be elicited with the same skin test antigen dose. These observations indicate that transfer factor can initiate a specific immune response to an antigen not previously encountered by the recipient and that in certain circumstances this immune response can be comparable to that of the donor. These observations on specificity and potency of transfer factor have important implications for the clinical use of this material.
Kenneth S. Zuckerman, James A. Neidhart, Stanley P. Balcerzak, Albert F. LoBuglio
The effect of oral contraceptives on the neurohypophysis was demonstrated by changes in the plasma level of a posterior pituitary protein. neurophysin. Neurophysins are intraneuronal proteins associated with oxytocin and vasopressin. They have been shown to be released into the bloodstream. The resting plasma level of neurophysin in normal nonpregnant women is 0.69 ng/ml±0.7 SD. In women on oral contraceptives, the plasma level is 6.4 ng/ml±4.2 SD (P<0.001). Estrogen rather than progesterone causes the elevated neurophysin. The effect is observed within 12-24 h of estrogen administration and disappears 3-11 days after estrogen is discontinued.
Alan G. Robinson
Amino acid analysis of human fetal lung elastin was undertaken in 49 instances of live-born neonates, ranging from 380 g to full term, and in 3 abortuses of 12-14 wk gestation. The data suggest that formation of the cross-linking agents, desmosine and isodesmosine, occurs early, between 14 and 22 wk. The ratio of neutral to charged amino acids remains low until the 36th wk when it attains adult levels. The composition of elastin was independent of sex and duration of survival. In three neonatal pulmonary diseases (respiratory distress syndrome, atelectasis, and hemorrhage) ratios were significantly lower than those found in nondiseased lungs. This may be a reflection of immaturity or may be a predisposing factor in neonatal lung disease. The latter hypothesis is attractive and receives indirect support from the association of a more polar elastin with other diseases, including adult emphysema and atheromatous aortic change.
Hugh E. Evans, Stephen Keller, Ines Mandl
The effect of estrogen and progestin on pituitary responsiveness to 150 μg synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (LRF) was assessed in premenopausal women receiving sequential (n=12) and combination (n=7) contraceptive steroids. A marked contrast in the time-course and maximal response to LRF was found; a prompt but quantitatively smaller luteinizing hormone (LH) response was seen during cyclic combination therapy, while a delayed (five times) but enhanced (fivefold) LH response was observed during estrogen segments of cyclic sequential therapy. For follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the maximum rise was also higher, and the peak response was similarly delayed in the latter group. The quantitative secretion in response to LRF for LH (area under the curve), but not for FSH, was significantly greater (P < 0.01) in subjects receiving sequential, as compared to subjects receiving combination treatment. In both groups, characteristic gonadotropin responses to LRF were reproducible and were independent of the duration of treatment. Since LRF studies were performed during the estrogen segment of treatment cycle in subjects receiving sequential steroids, our data suggest that estrogen exerts a direct feedback action at the pituitary level and that pituitary responsiveness to LRF is augmented by estrogen.
G. Vandenberg, G. DeVane, S. S. C. Yen
Physical properties of actomyosin from either fresh or stored platelets have been compared. Actomyosin obtained from platelets after 3 days of storage contained myosin that was 60-80% degraded to myosin rod. No myosin rod was detected in fresh platelets. The platelet myosin rod is similar to the rod produced by limited proteolysis of skeletal muscle myosin.
Joel Abramowitz, Alfred Stracher, Thomas C. Detwiler
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