Multiple media outlets report on “Skin exposure promotes a Th2-dependent sensitization to peanut allergens” by Leticia Tordesillas, Ritobrata Goswami, and colleagues.
Learn more about how skin exposure to peanut allergens can lead to peanut allergy: Fox News, Headlines and Global News, Allergic Living, Science World Report, Times of India, University Herald, and Business Standard.
Various sources cover “Abolished InsP3R2 function inhibits sweat secretion in both humans and mice” by Joakim Klar, Chihiro Hisatsune, and colleagues.
There are multiple reports on “Chronic allergic contact dermatitis promotes skin cancer” by Shadmehr Demehri and colleagues.
Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy, without a known prior oral exposure, suggesting that alternative exposure routes contribute to food allergy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peanut proteins activate innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We exposed mice to peanut protein extract on undamaged areas of skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and anaphylaxis upon rechallenge. In mice, this epicutaneous peanut exposure induced sensitization to the peanut components Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, which is also observed in human peanut allergy. Both crude peanut extract and Ara h 2 alone served as adjuvants, as both induced a bystander sensitization that was similar to that induced by the atopic dermatitis-associated staphylococcal enterotoxin B. In cultured human keratinocytes and in murine skin, peanut extract directly induced cytokine expression. Moreover, topical peanut extract application induced an alteration dependent on the IL-33 receptor ST2 in skin-draining DCs, resulting in Th2 cytokine production from T cells. Together, our data support the hypothesis that peanuts are allergenic due to inherent adjuvant activity and suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life.
Leticia Tordesillas, Ritobrata Goswami, Sara Benedé, Galina Grishina, David Dunkin, Kirsi M. Järvinen, Soheila J. Maleki, Hugh A. Sampson, M. Cecilia Berin
There are 3 major sweat-producing glands present in skin; eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands. Due to the high rate of secretion, eccrine sweating is a vital regulator of body temperature in response to thermal stress in humans; therefore, an inability to sweat (anhidrosis) results in heat intolerance that may cause impaired consciousness and death. Here, we have reported 5 members of a consanguineous family with generalized, isolated anhidrosis, but morphologically normal eccrine sweat glands. Whole-genome analysis identified the presence of a homozygous missense mutation in
Joakim Klar, Chihiro Hisatsune, Shahid M. Baig, Muhammad Tariq, Anna C.V. Johansson, Mahmood Rasool, Naveed Altaf Malik, Adam Ameur, Kotomi Sugiura, Lars Feuk, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Niklas Dahl
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is well recognized as an adverse event associated with implantable medical devices that contain allergenic materials like nickel; however, other cutaneous consequences of chronic exposure to allergens in implanted devices are not well understood. Here, we present a clinical case of Marjolin’s ulcer, an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that developed in response to chronic ACD caused by an orthopedic implant. We used a standard murine model of contact hypersensitivity to determine whether chronic ACD promotes skin carcinogenesis. Chronic application of 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) to carcinogen-treated skin led to the development of papillomas and aggressive SCC. DNFB-driven chronic ACD was marked by type 2 inflammation, which mediated skin carcinogenesis, as mice unable to mount an inflammatory response were less likely to develop skin tumors. Importantly, we found similar tumor-promoting inflammation surrounding the SCC in our patient. Our findings demonstrate that chronic ACD caused by constant exposure to an allergen can promote tumorigenesis at skin sites with preexisting cancer-initiated cells. Moreover, our results suggest that patients with implantable devices placed in close proximity to the skin should be monitored for ACD and highlight the importance of patch testing prior to the placement of such devices.
Shadmehr Demehri, Trevor J. Cunningham, Eva A. Hurst, Andras Schaffer, David M. Sheinbein, Wayne M. Yokoyama