Prostate cancer (PC) is driven by androgen receptor (AR) activity, a master regulator of prostate development and homeostasis. Frontline therapies for metastatic PC deprive the AR of the activating ligands testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by limiting their biosynthesis or blocking AR binding. Notably, AR signaling is dichotomous, inducing growth at lower activity levels, while suppressing growth at higher levels. Recent clinical studies have exploited this effect by administration of supraphysiological concentrations of T, resulting in clinical responses and improvements in quality of life. However, the use of T as a therapeutic agent in oncology is limited by poor drug-like properties as well as rapid and variable metabolism. Here, we investigated the antitumor effects of selective AR modulators (SARMs), which are small-molecule nonsteroidal AR agonists developed to treat muscle wasting and cachexia. Several orally administered SARMs activated the AR program in PC models. AR cistromes regulated by steroidal androgens and SARMs were superimposable. Coregulatory proteins including HOXB13 and GRHL2 comprised AR complexes assembled by both androgens and SARMs. At bioavailable concentrations, SARMs repressed MYC oncoprotein expression and inhibited the growth of castration-sensitive and castration-resistant PC in vitro and in vivo. These results support further clinical investigation of SARMs for treating advanced PC.
Michael D. Nyquist, Lisa S. Ang, Alexandra Corella, Ilsa M. Coleman, Michael P. Meers, Anthony J. Christiani, Cordell Pierce, Derek H. Janssens, Hannah E. Meade, Arnab Bose, Lauren Brady, Timothy Howard, Navonil De Sarkar, Sander B. Frank, Ruth F. Dumpit, James T. Dalton, Eva Corey, Stephen R. Plymate, Michael C. Haffner, Elahe A. Mostaghel, Peter S. Nelson
Guidelines: The Editorial Board will only consider letters that we deem relevant and of interest to our readers. We will not post data that have not been subjected to peer review, nor will we post letters that are essentially a reiteration of another letter. We reserve the right to edit any letter for length, content, and clarity. Authors will be notified by e-mail if their letters were accepted. No appeals will be considered.
Specific requirements: All letters must be 400 words or fewer. You may enter the letter as plain text or HTML. The author's name and e-mail address are required, and will be posted with the letter. All possible conflicts of interest must be noted, even if they are not posted. If you wish to include a figure (keep in mind that non-peer-reviewed data will not be posted), please contact the editors directly at email@example.com.