The fundamental pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is neuronal dysfunction leading to cognitive impairment. The amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), derived from amyloid precursor protein, is one driver of AD, but how it leads to neuronal dysfunction is not established. In this Review, I discuss the complexity of AD and possible cause-and-effect relationships between Aβ and the vascular and hemostatic systems. AD can be considered a multifactorial syndrome with various contributing pathological mechanisms. Therefore, as is routinely done with cancer, it will be important to classify patients with respect to their disease signature so that specific pathologies, including vascular pathways, can be therapeutically targeted.
Multiple pathogenic pathways contribute to and provide therapeutic targets for AD.