First published April 1, 2015 - More info
Initiation of the adaptive immune response is dependent on the priming of naive T cells by APCs. Proteomic analysis of unactivated and activated human NK cell membrane–enriched fractions demonstrated that activated NK cells can efficiently stimulate T cells, since they upregulate MHC class II molecules and multiple ligands for TCR costimulatory molecules. Furthermore, by manipulating antigen administration, we show that NK cells possess multiple independent unique pathways for antigen uptake. These results highlight NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity and specific ligand recognition by cell surface–activating receptors on NK cells as unique mechanisms for antigen capturing and presentation. In addition, we analyzed the T cell–activating potential of human NK cells derived from different clinical conditions, such as inflamed tonsils and noninfected and CMV-infected uterine decidual samples, and from transporter-associated processing antigen 2–deficient patients. This in vivo analysis revealed that proinflammatory, but not immune-suppressive, microenvironmental requirements can selectively dictate upregulation of T cell–activating molecules on NK cells. Taken together, these observations offer new and unexpected insights into the direct interactions between NK and T cells and suggest novel APC-like activating functions for human NK cells.
Jacob Hanna, Tsufit Gonen-Gross, Jonathan Fitchett, Tony Rowe, Mark Daniels, Tal I. Arnon, Roi Gazit, Aviva Joseph, Karoline W. Schjetne, Alexander Steinle, Angel Porgador, Dror Mevorach, Debra Goldman-Wohl, Simcha Yagel, Michael J. LaBarre, Jane H. Buckner, Ofer Mandelboim
Original citation: J Clin Invest. 2004;114(11):1612–1623. doi:10.1172/JCI22787.
Citation for this retraction: J Clin Invest. 2015;125(4):1763. doi:10.1172/JCI81527.
A number of figure irregularities in this article were recently brought to the attention of the editorial board by the first author and corresponding author. In Figure 1, the ANK and UaNK sample labels were switched. In Figure 2C, the RT-PCR gel shown is identical to an RT-PCR gel shown in the original version of another publication (1). In Figure 3D, the panel showing DR0401-ospA incubated with ANK cells pulsed with HA protein (top left) is identical to the panel showing DR0401-HA pulsed with HA (bottom middle). Also in Figure 3D, the panel showing DR0401-HA incubated with UaNK cells pulsed with HA protein (top right) is identical to the panel showing DR0401-HA incubated with ANK cells pulsed with BSA protein (bottom left). In Figure 8, multiple flow cytometry panels shown were duplicated in the original version of another publication (2). The samples for these panels were labeled differently in the two publications, and in several cases, different antibodies were indicated.
The authors have stated that the errors were inadvertently introduced and further that recent experiments support their original findings. Moreover, they also note that their conclusions are supported by other work in the field (3, 4). However, the original data for this article are no longer available, and it is evident that a number of serious mistakes were made in the preparation of this article. Thus, the JCI editorial board is retracting this article due to the numerous errors in data reporting, misrepresentation of data, and image duplication.
The first author and corresponding author accept the editorial board’s decision, apologize to the scientific community for the mistakes, and will seek to publish a corrected manuscript version corroborating the findings of this work in due course.