Naive T helper cells differentiate into functionally distinct effector subsets that drive specialized immune responses. Recent studies indicate that some of the effector subsets have plasticity. Here, we used an EAE model and found that Th17 cells deficient in the transcription factor BCL11B upregulated the Th2-associated proteins GATA3 and IL-4 without decreasing RAR-related orphan receptor γ (RORγt), IL-17, and GM-CSF levels. Surprisingly, abnormal IL-4 production affected Th17 cell trafficking, diverting migration from the draining lymph nodes/CNS route to the mesenteric lymph nodes/gut route, which ameliorated EAE without overt colitis. T helper cell rerouting in EAE was dependent on IL-4, which enhanced retinoic acid (RA) production by dendritic cells, which further induced expression of gut-homing receptors CCR9 and α4β7 on
Danielle Califano, Keith J. Sweeney, Hung Le, Jeffrey VanValkenburgh, Eric Yager, William O’Connor Jr., Jeffrey S. Kennedy, David M. Jones, Dorina Avram
Usage data is cumulative from April 2020 through April 2021.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.