The inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) plays a major role in functional exhaustion of T cells during chronic infections and cancer, and recent clinical data suggest that blockade of the PD-1 pathway is an effective immunotherapy in treating certain cancers. Thus, it is important to define combinatorial approaches that increase the efficacy of PD-1 blockade. To address this issue, we examined the effect of IL-2 and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade in the mouse model of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. We found that low-dose IL-2 administration alone enhanced CD8+ T cell responses in chronically infected mice. IL-2 treatment also decreased inhibitory receptor levels on virus-specific CD8+ T cells and increased expression of CD127 and CD44, resulting in a phenotype resembling that of memory T cells. Surprisingly, IL-2 therapy had only a minimal effect on reducing viral load. However, combining IL-2 treatment with blockade of the PD-1 inhibitory pathway had striking synergistic effects in enhancing virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses and decreasing viral load. Interestingly, this reduction in viral load occurred despite increased numbers of Tregs. These results suggest that combined IL-2 therapy and PD-L1 blockade merits consideration as a regimen for treating human chronic infections and cancer.
Erin E. West, Hyun-Tak Jin, Ata-Ur Rasheed, Pablo Penaloza-MacMaster, Sang-Jun Ha, Wendy G. Tan, Ben Youngblood, Gordon J. Freeman, Kendall A. Smith, Rafi Ahmed
This article was first published May 15, 2013. Usage data is cumulative from April 2017 through April 2018.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.