EGFR activation is both a key molecular driver of disease progression and the target of a broad class of molecular agents designed to treat advanced cancer. Nevertheless, resistance develops through several mechanisms, including activation of AKT signaling. Though much is known about the specific molecular lesions conferring resistance to anti-EGFR–based therapies, additional molecular characterization of the downstream mediators of EGFR signaling may lead to the development of new classes of targeted molecular therapies to treat resistant disease. We identified a transcriptional network involving the tumor suppressors Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) that negatively regulates activated EGFR signaling in both cell culture and in vivo models. Furthermore, the use of the FDA-approved drug trifluoperazine hydrochloride (TFP), which has been shown to inhibit FOXO1 nuclear export, restored sensitivity to AKT-driven erlotinib resistance through modulation of the KLF6/FOXO1 signaling cascade in both cell culture and xenograft models of lung adenocarcinoma. Combined, these findings define a novel transcriptional network regulating oncogenic EGFR signaling and identify a class of FDA-approved drugs as capable of restoring chemosensitivity to anti-EGFR–based therapy for the treatment of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma.
Jaya Sangodkar, Neil S. Dhawan, Heather Melville, Varan J. Singh, Eric Yuan, Huma Rana, Sudeh Izadmehr, Caroline Farrington, Sahar Mazhar, Suzanna Katz, Tara Albano, Pearlann Arnovitz, Rachel Okrent, Michael Ohlmeyer, Matthew Galsky, David Burstein, David Zhang, Katerina Politi, Analisa DiFeo, Goutham Narla
The EGFR/AKT/FOXO1/KLF6 signaling axis and associated inhibitors utilized to determine functional relationships among the signaling components of the cascade.