Familial macular degeneration is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive central vision loss. Here we show that an R373C missense mutation in the prominin 1 gene (PROM1) causes 3 forms of autosomal-dominant macular degeneration. In transgenic mice expressing R373C mutant human PROM1, both mutant and endogenous PROM1 were found throughout the layers of the photoreceptors, rather than at the base of the photoreceptor outer segments, where PROM1 is normally localized. Moreover, the outer segment disk membranes were greatly overgrown and misoriented, indicating defective disk morphogenesis. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that PROM1 interacted with protocadherin 21 (PCDH21), a photoreceptor-specific cadherin, and with actin filaments, both of which play critical roles in disk membrane morphogenesis. Collectively, our results identify what we believe to be a novel complex involved in photoreceptor disk morphogenesis and indicate a possible role for PROM1 and PCDH21 in macular degeneration.
Zhenglin Yang, Yali Chen, Concepcion Lillo, Jeremy Chien, Zhengya Yu, Michel Michaelides, Martin Klein, Kim A. Howes, Yang Li, Yuuki Kaminoh, Haoyu Chen, Chao Zhao, Yuhong Chen, Youssef Tawfik Al-Sheikh, Goutam Karan, Denis Corbeil, Pascal Escher, Shin Kamaya, Chunmei Li, Samantha Johnson, Jeanne M. Frederick, Yu Zhao, Changguan Wang, D. Joshua Cameron, Wieland B. Huttner, Daniel F. Schorderet, Frances L. Munier, Anthony T. Moore, David G. Birch, Wolfgang Baehr, David M. Hunt, David S. Williams, Kang Zhang
Usage data is cumulative from November 2019 through November 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.