First published September 18, 2008 - More info
Glycogen synthase kinase–3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by 2 genes, GSK3A and GSK3B. GSK-3 is thought to be involved in tissue repair and fibrogenesis, but its role in these processes is currently unknown. To investigate the function of GSK-3β in fibroblasts, we generated mice harboring a fibroblast-specific deletion of Gsk3b and evaluated their wound-healing and fibrogenic responses. We have shown that Gsk3b-conditional-KO mice (Gsk3b-CKO mice) exhibited accelerated wound closure, increased fibrogenesis, and excessive scarring compared with control mice. In addition, Gsk3b-CKO mice showed elevated collagen production, decreased cell apoptosis, elevated levels of profibrotic α-SMA, and increased myofibroblast formation during wound healing. In cultured Gsk3b-CKO fibroblasts, adhesion, spreading, migration, and contraction were enhanced. Both Gsk3b-CKO mice and fibroblasts showed elevated expression and production of endothelin-1 (ET-1) compared with control mice and cells. Antagonizing ET-1 reversed the phenotype of Gsk3b-CKO fibroblasts and mice. Thus, GSK-3β appears to control the progression of wound healing and fibrosis by modulating ET-1 levels. These results suggest that targeting the GSK-3β pathway or ET-1 may be of benefit in controlling tissue repair and fibrogenic responses in vivo.
Mohit Kapoor, Shangxi Liu, Xu Shi-wen, Kun Huh, Matthew McCann, Christopher P. Denton, James R. Woodgett, David J. Abraham, Andrew Leask
Original citation: J. Clin. Invest.118:3279–3290 (2008). doi:10.1172/JCI35381.
Citation for this retraction: J. Clin. Invest.118:3812 (2008). doi:10.1172/JCI35381R1.
The senior author, Andrew Leask, signed the authorship agreement form on behalf of James R. Woodgett without his knowledge or consent and takes full and complete responsibility for this action. The senior author sincerely apologizes for any inconvenience this error has caused and would like to emphasize that this in no way diminishes the validity of the data presented in the article. However, the article is being retracted in accordance with JCI policy.