The binding of 125I-factor Xa to human aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) monolayers was studied. At 4 degreesC, 125I-factor Xa bound to a single class of binding sites with a dissociation constant value of 3.6+/-0.7 nM and a binding site density of 11,720+/-1,240 sites/cell (n = 9). 125I-factor Xa binding was not affected by factor X, thrombin, or by DX9065, a direct inhibitor of factor Xa, but was inhibited by factor Xa (IC50 = 5.4+/-0.2 nM; n = 9) and by antibodies specific for the effector cell protease receptor 1 (EPR-1), a well-known receptor of factor Xa on various cell types. A factor X peptide duplicating the inter-EGF sequence Leu83-Leu88-(Gly) blocked the binding of 125I-factor Xa to these cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 110+/-21 nM). Factor Xa increased phosphoinositide turnover in SMCs and when added to SMCs in culture was a potent mitogen. These effects were inhibited by DX9065 and by antibodies directed against EPR-1 and PDGF. Increased expression of EPR-1 was identified immunohistochemically on SMCs growing in culture and in SMCs from the rabbit carotid artery after vascular injury. When applied locally to air-injured rabbit carotid arteries, antibodies directed against EPR-1 (100 mug/ artery) strongly reduced myointimal proliferation 14 d after vascular injury (65-71% inhibition, P < 0.01). DX9065 (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous) inhibited myointimal proliferation significantly (43% inhibition, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that SMCs express functional high affinity receptors for factor Xa related to EPR-1, which may be of importance in the regulation of homeostasis of the vascular wall and after vascular injury.
J Herbert, F Bono, J Herault, C Avril, F Dol, A Mares, P Schaeffer