BACKGROUND. HER2-targeting therapies have great efficacy in HER2-positive breast cancer, but resistance in part due to HER2 heterogeneity (HET) is a significant clinical challenge. We previously described that in a phase II neoadjuvant trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and pertuzumab (T-DM1+P) clinical trial in early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, none of the patients with HER2-HET tumors had pathologic complete response (pCR). METHODS. To investigate cellular and molecular differences among tumors according to HER2 heterogeneity and pCR, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and ERBB2 FISH of 285 pre/post-treatment tumors from 129 patients in this T-DM1+P neoadjuvant trial. A subset of cases was also subject to Nanostring spatial digital profiling. RESULTS. Pre-treatment tumors from patients with pCR had the highest level of ERBB2 mRNA and ERBB signaling. HET was associated with no pCR, basal-like features, low ERBB2 expression yet high ERBB signaling sustained by activation of downstream pathway components. Residual tumors showed decreased HER2 protein levels and ERBB2 copy number heterogeneity and increased PI3K pathway enrichment and luminal features. HET tumors showed minimal treatment-induced transcriptomic changes compared to non-HET tumors. Immune infiltration correlated with pCR and HER2-HET status. CONCLUSION. Resistance mechanisms in HET and non-HET tumors are distinct. HER2-targeting antibodies have limited efficacy in HET tumors. Our results support the stratification of patients based on HET status and the use of agents that target downstream components of the ERBB signaling pathway in patients with HET tumors. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02326974. FUNDING. This study was funded by Roche and the National Cancer Institute.
Zheqi Li, Otto Metzger Filho, Giuseppe Viale, Patrizia dell'Orto, Leila Russo, Marie-Anne Goyette, Avni Kamat, Denise A. Yardley, Vandana Gupta Abramson, Carlos L. Arteaga, Laura M. Spring, Kami Chiotti, Carol Halsey, Adrienne G. Waks, Tari A. King, Susan C. Lester, Jennifer R. Bellon, Eric P. Winer, Paul T. Spellman, Ian E. Krop, Kornelia Polyak