Organoid technology has provided new translational research opportunities in oncology, in part by enabling the development of patient-representative living biobanks. Prostate cancer research historically has been constrained to a small number of in vitro models, limiting the ability to translate experimental conclusions for contemporary, heterogeneous patient populations. The facility of organoid culture methods to maintain luminal prostate epithelia, the common lineage of prostate cancers, has greatly expanded the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of available tractable models, including luminal stem/progenitor cells and progressive patient-derived cancers. Biobanks of patient prostate cancer organoids enable increased accuracy in predicting therapeutic efficacy and informative clinical trial designs. Here, we discuss how prostate organoid technology is currently being used, the promising areas of future therapeutic applications, and the current obstacles to be overcome.
Michael Beshiri, Supreet Agarwal, Juan Juan Yin, Kathleen Kelly