BACKGROUND We previously demonstrated the safety of stereotactic body radiotherapy followed by pembrolizumab (SBRT+P) in patients with advanced solid tumors. This phase I clinical trial was expanded to study the safety of partial tumor irradiation (partial-Rx). We assessed irradiated local failure (LF) and clinical outcomes with correlations to biomarkers including CD8+ T cell radiomics score (RS) and circulating cytokines.METHODS Patients received SBRT to 2–4 metastases and pembrolizumab for up to 7 days after SBRT. Tumors measuring up to 65 cc received the full radiation dose (complete-Rx), whereas tumors measuring more than 65 cc received partial-Rx. Landmark analysis was used to assess the relationship between tumor response and overall survival (OS). Multivariable analysis was performed for RS and circulating cytokines.RESULTS In the combined (expansion plus original) cohort, 97 patients (219 metastases) were analyzed and received SBRT+P. Forty-six (47%) patients received at least 1 partial-Rx treatment. There were 7 (7.2%)dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). 1-year LF was 7.6% overall, and 13.3% and 5.4% for partial-Rx and complete-Rx tumors, respectively (HR 2.32, 95% CI 0.90–5.97, P = 0.08). The overall, unirradiated, and irradiated objective response rates were 22%, 12%, and 34%, respectively. Irradiated tumor response to SBRT+P was associated with prolonged OS; 1-year OS was 71% (responders), 42% (mixed-responders), and 0% (nonresponders) (P < 0.01). High-RS was significantly associated with improved LF, progression-free survival (PFS), and OS. Elevated circulating IL-8 was independently associated with inferior PFS and OS.CONCLUSION SBRT+P is safe in patients with large, advanced solid tumors. Additional studies are warranted to assess noninferiority of complete versus partial irradiation of tumors in the setting of immunotherapy.TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02608385FUNDING Merck Investigator Studies Program; Hillman Fellows for Innovative Cancer Research Program; NIH grants UM1CA186690-06, P50CA254865-01A1, P30CA047904-32, and R01DE031729-01A1.
Mark C. Korpics, Benjamin E. Onderdonk, Rebekah E. Dadey, Jared H. Hara, Lilit Karapetyan, Yuanyuan Zha, Theodore G. Karrison, Adam C. Olson, Gini F. Fleming, Ralph R. Weichselbaum, Riyue Bao, Steven J. Chmura, Jason J. Luke