Despite advances in acute care, ischemic stroke remains a major cause of long-term disability. Approaches targeting both neuronal and glial responses are needed to enhance recovery and improve long-term outcome. The complement C3a receptor (C3aR) is a regulator of inflammation with roles in neurodevelopment, neural plasticity, and neurodegeneration. Using mice lacking C3aR (C3aR–/–) and mice overexpressing C3a in the brain, we uncovered 2 opposing effects of C3aR signaling on functional recovery after ischemic stroke: inhibition in the acute phase and facilitation in the later phase. Peri-infarct astrocyte reactivity was increased and density of microglia reduced in C3aR–/– mice; C3a overexpression led to the opposite effects. Pharmacological treatment of wild-type mice with intranasal C3a starting 7 days after stroke accelerated recovery of motor function and attenuated astrocyte reactivity without enhancing microgliosis. C3a treatment stimulated global white matter reorganization, increased peri-infarct structural connectivity, and upregulated Igf1 and Thbs4 in the peri-infarct cortex. Thus, C3a treatment from day 7 after stroke exerts positive effects on astrocytes and neuronal connectivity while avoiding the deleterious consequences of C3aR signaling during the acute phase. Intranasal administration of C3aR agonists within a convenient time window holds translational promise to improve outcome after ischemic stroke.
Anna Stokowska, Markus Aswendt, Daniel Zucha, Stephanie Lohmann, Frederique Wieters, Javier Morán Suarez, Alison L. Atkins, YiXian Li, Maria Miteva, Julia Lewin, Dirk Wiedermann, Michael Diedenhofen, Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Pavel Abaffy, Lukas Valihrach, Mikael Kubista, Mathias Hoehn, Milos Pekny, Marcela Pekna
This file is in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format. If you have not installed and configured the Adobe Acrobat Reader on your system.
PDFs are designed to be printed out and read, but if you prefer to read them online, you may find it easier if you increase the view size to 125%.
Many versions of the free Acrobat Reader do not allow Save. You must instead save the PDF from the JCI Online page you downloaded it from. PC users: Right-click on the Download link and choose the option that says something like "Save Link As...". Mac users should hold the mouse button down on the link to get these same options.