Peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) was recently approved by the US FDA. However, not all patients respond to OIT, and there is a high likelihood of regaining sensitization to peanuts after cessation of treatment. It is important, therefore, to identify biomarkers that impact and predict OIT outcomes. In this issue of the JCI, Monian, Tu, and colleagues describe distinct subsets of peanut-reactive CD4+ Th cell phenotypes and gene signatures with relevance to OIT outcomes using single-cell RNA-Seq and paired T cell receptor (TCR) α/β sequencing. The insights obtained will inform the development of therapeutics that target these Th cell phenotypes or deplete peanut-specific Th2 cells to achieve sustained nonresponsiveness in food allergy.
Shijie Cao, Cathryn R. Nagler