The genetic peripheral neuropathy known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (CMT4J) is caused by recessive mutations in the FIG4 gene. The transformational success of adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy for spinal muscular atrophy has generated substantial interest in using this approach to create similar treatments for CMT. In this issue of the JCI, Presa et al. provide a preclinical demonstration of efficacy using AAV-directed gene therapy for CMT4J. The study showed a dramatic improvement in both survival and neuropathy symptoms in a severe mouse model of CMT4J after administration of AAV gene therapy at several time points. The authors’ approach advances the technique for delivering treatments to individuals with CMT, for which FDA-approved therapies have not yet come to the clinic.