BACKGROUND The recent failure of checkpoint-blockade therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in late-phase clinical trials has directed interest toward adoptive cellular therapies (ACTs). In this open-label, first-in-human trial, we have assessed the safety and therapeutic potential of cytomegalovirus-specific (CMV-specific) ACT in an adjuvant setting for patients with primary GBM, with an ultimate goal to prevent or delay recurrence and prolong overall survival.METHODS Twenty-eight patients with primary GBM were recruited to this prospective study, 25 of whom were treated with in vitro–expanded autologous CMV-specific T cells. Participants were monitored for safety, progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), and immune reconstitution.RESULTS No participants showed evidence of ACT-related toxicities. Of 25 evaluable participants, 10 were alive at the completion of follow-up, while 5 were disease free. Reconstitution of CMV-specific T cell immunity was evident and CMV-specific ACT may trigger a bystander effect leading to additional T cell responses to nonviral tumor-associated antigens through epitope spreading. Long-term follow-up of participants treated before recurrence showed significantly improved OS when compared with those who progressed before ACT (median 23 months, range 7–65 vs. median 14 months, range 5–19; P = 0.018). Gene expression analysis of the ACT products indicated that a favorable T cell gene signature was associated with improved long-term survival.CONCLUSION Data presented in this study demonstrate that CMV-specific ACT can be safely used as an adjuvant therapy for primary GBM and, if offered before recurrence, this therapy may improve OS of GBM patients.TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au: ACTRN12615000656538.FUNDING Philanthropic funding and the National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia).
Corey Smith, Katie E. Lineburg, J. Paulo Martins, George R. Ambalathingal, Michelle A. Neller, Beth Morrison, Katherine K. Matthews, Sweera Rehan, Pauline Crooks, Archana Panikkar, Leone Beagley, Laetitia Le Texier, Sriganesh Srihari, David Walker, Rajiv Khanna