Inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1) are in the early phase of clinical development. Deletion of mPges-1 in mice confers analgesia, restrains atherogenesis, and fails to accelerate thrombogenesis, while suppressing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), but increasing the biosynthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2). In low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr–/–) mice, this last effect represents the dominant mechanism by which mPges-1 deletion restrains thrombogenesis, while suppression of PGE2 accounts for its antiatherogenic effect. However, the effect of mPges-1 depletion on blood pressure (BP) in this setting remains unknown. Here, we show that mPges-1 depletion significantly increased the BP response to salt loading in male Ldlr–/– mice, whereas, despite the direct vasodilator properties of PGI2, deletion of the I prostanoid receptor (Ipr) suppressed this response. Furthermore, combined deletion of the Ipr abrogated the exaggerated BP response in male mPges-1–/– mice. Interestingly, these unexpected BP phenotypes were not observed in female mice fed a high-salt diet (HSD). This is attributable to the protective effect of estrogen in Ldlr–/– mice and in Ipr–/– Ldlr–/– mice. Thus, estrogen compensates for a deficiency in PGI2 to maintain BP homeostasis in response to high salt in hyperlipidemic female mice. In male mice, by contrast, the augmented formation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plays a similar compensatory role, restraining hypertension and oxidant stress in the setting of Ipr depletion. Hence, men with hyperlipidemia on a HSD might be at risk of a hypertensive response to mPGES-1 inhibitors.
Soon Y. Tang, Hu Meng, Seán T. Anderson, Dimitra Sarantopoulou, Soumita Ghosh, Nicholas F. Lahens, Katherine N. Theken, Emanuela Ricciotti, Elizabeth J. Hennessy, Vincent Tu, Kyle Bittinger, Aalim M. Weiljie, Gregory R. Grant, Garret A. FitzGerald
Impact of Ipr and mPges-1 deletion on prostaglandin biosynthesis in male hyperlipidemic mice on a HSD.