Stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by proinflammatory cytokines results in increased release of glucocorticoid that restrains further development of the inflammatory process. IL-6 has been suggested to stimulate the HPA axis during immune activation independent of the input of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). We used the corticotropin-releasing hormone–deficient (Crh+/+) mouse to elucidate the effect of CRH deficiency on IL-6 expression and IL-6–induced HPA axis activation during turpentine-induced inflammation. We demonstrate that during inflammation CRH is required for a normal adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) increase but not for adrenal corticosterone rise. The paradoxical increase of plasma IL-6 associated with CRH deficiency suggests that IL-6 release during inflammation is CRH-dependent. We also demonstrate that adrenal IL-6 expression is CRH-dependent, as its basal and inflammation-induced expression is blocked by CRH deficiency. Our findings suggest that during inflammation, IL-6 most likely compensates for the effects of CRH deficiency on food intake. Finally, we confirm that the HPA axis response is defective in Crh+/+/IL-6+/+ mice. These findings, along with the regulation of IL-6 by CRH, support the importance of the interaction between the immune system and the HPA axis in the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases.
Maria Venihaki, Pieter Dikkes, Allison Carrigan, Katia P. Karalis
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