The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is estimated to infect a large part of the population and is associated with a variety of human tumors; therefore, EBV is an important target for vaccine development. In this issue of the JCI, Rühl et al. developed a promising heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy for EBV-associated malignancies and symptomatic primary infection. The authors show that two prime-boost regimens, using either dendritic cells or an adenovirus approach targeting nuclear antigen EBNA1 followed by a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) booster, induced significant T cell–mediated, EBV-specific immune control and Ab production. These findings suggest that administration of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations targeting EBNA1 may result in potent CD4+ and CD8+ T cell–mediated EBV immune control and may be a promising clinical approach.
Sandhya Sharma, Rayne H. Rouce