Fibronectin in the vascular wall promotes inflammatory activation of the endothelium during vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis. These effects are mediated in part by fibronectin binding to integrin α5, which recruits and activates phosphodiesterase 4D5 (PDE4D5) by inducing its dephosphorylation on an inhibitory site, S651. Active PDE then hydrolyzes antiinflammatory cAMP to facilitate inflammatory signaling. To test this model in vivo, we mutated the integrin binding site of PDE4D5 in mice. This mutation reduced endothelial inflammatory activation in atherosclerosis-prone regions of arteries and, in a hyperlipidemia model, reduced atherosclerotic plaque size while increasing markers of plaque stability. We then investigated the mechanism of PDE4D5 activation. Proteomics identified the PP2A regulatory subunit B55α as the factor recruiting PP2A to PDE4D5. The B55α-PP2A complex localized to adhesions and directly dephosphorylated PDE4D5. This interaction also, unexpectedly, stabilized the PP2A-B55α complex. The integrin-regulated, proatherosclerotic transcription factor Yap was also dephosphorylated and activated through this pathway. PDE4D5 therefore mediated matrix-specific regulation of endothelial cell phenotype via an unconventional adapter role, assembling and anchoring a multifunctional PP2A complex that has other targets. We believe these results may have widespread consequences for the control of cell function by integrins.
Sanguk Yun, Rui Hu, Melanie E. Schwaemmle, Alexander N. Scherer, Zhenwu Zhuang, Anthony J. Koleske, David C. Pallas, Martin A. Schwartz
Usage data is cumulative from August 2019 through June 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.