Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a common complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation that negatively impacts quality of life in recipients and can be fatal. Animal experiments and human studies provide compelling evidence that the gut microbiota is associated with risk of GvHD, but the nature of this relationship remains unclear. If the gut microbiota is a driver of GvHD pathogenesis, then manipulation of the gut microbiota offers one promising avenue for preventing or treating this common condition, and antibiotic stewardship efforts in transplantation may help preserve the indigenous microbiota and modulate immune responses to benefit the host.
David N. Fredricks
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