Combined germline and somatic second-hit inactivating mutations of the RASA1 gene, which encodes a negative regulator of the Ras signaling pathway, cause blood and lymphatic vascular lesions in the human autosomal-dominant vascular disorder capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM). How RASA1 mutations in endothelial cells (ECs) result in vascular lesions in CM-AVM is unknown. Here, using different murine models of RASA1 deficiency, we found that RASA1 was essential for the survival of ECs during developmental angiogenesis, in which primitive vascular plexuses are remodeled into hierarchical vascular networks. RASA1 was required for EC survival during developmental angiogenesis, because it was necessary for export of collagen IV from ECs and deposition in vascular basement membranes. In the absence of RASA1, dysregulated Ras/MAPK signal transduction in ECs resulted in impaired folding of collagen IV and its retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to EC death. Remarkably, the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid and small-molecule inhibitors of MAPK and 2-oxoglutarate–dependent collagen IV–modifying enzymes rescued ER retention of collagen IV and EC apoptosis and resulted in normal developmental angiogenesis. These findings have important implications for a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CM-AVM and possible means of treatment.
Di Chen, Joyce M. Teng, Paula E. North, Philip E. Lapinski, Philip D. King
This file is in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format. If you have not installed and configured the Adobe Acrobat Reader on your system.
PDFs are designed to be printed out and read, but if you prefer to read them online, you may find it easier if you increase the view size to 125%.
Many versions of the free Acrobat Reader do not allow Save. You must instead save the PDF from the JCI Online page you downloaded it from. PC users: Right-click on the Download link and choose the option that says something like "Save Link As...". Mac users should hold the mouse button down on the link to get these same options.