Department of Neuroscience, Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
Address correspondence to: David R. Borchelt, Department of Neuroscience/CTRND, Box 100159, 1275 Center Drive, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. Phone: 352.273.9664; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
First published March 30, 2018 - More info
The apolipoprotein E E4 allele of the APOE gene is the strongest genetic factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). There is compelling evidence that apoE influences Alzheimer disease (AD) in large part by affecting amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation and clearance; however, the molecular mechanism underlying these findings remains largely unknown. Herein, we tested whether anti–human apoE antibodies can decrease Aβ pathology in mice producing both human Aβ and apoE4, and investigated the mechanism underlying these effects. We utilized APPPS1-21 mice crossed to apoE4-knockin mice expressing human apoE4 (APPPS1-21/APOE4). We discovered an anti–human apoE antibody, anti–human apoE 4 (HAE-4), that specifically recognizes human apoE4 and apoE3 and preferentially binds nonlipidated, aggregated apoE over the lipidated apoE found in circulation. HAE-4 also binds to apoE in amyloid plaques in unfixed brain sections and in living APPPS1-21/APOE4 mice. When delivered centrally or by peripheral injection, HAE-4 reduced Aβ deposition in APPPS1-21/APOE4 mice. Using adeno-associated virus to express 2 different full-length anti–apoE antibodies in the brain, we found that HAE antibodies decreased amyloid accumulation, which was dependent on Fcγ receptor function. These data support the hypothesis that a primary mechanism for apoE-mediated plaque formation may be a result of apoE aggregation, as preferentially targeting apoE aggregates with therapeutic antibodies reduces Aβ pathology and may represent a selective approach to treat AD.
Fan Liao, Aimin Li, Monica Xiong, Nga Bien-Ly, Hong Jiang, Yin Zhang, Mary Beth Finn, Rosa Hoyle, Jennifer Keyser, Katheryn B. Lefton, Grace O. Robinson, Javier Remolina Serrano, Adam P. Silverman, Jing L. Guo, Jennifer Getz, Kirk Henne, Cheryl E.G. Leyns, Gilbert Gallardo, Jason D. Ulrich, Patrick M. Sullivan, Eli Paul Lerner, Eloise Hudry, Zachary K. Sweeney, Mark S. Dennis, Bradley T. Hyman, Ryan J. Watts, David M. Holtzman
Inheritance of the E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE4) substantially increases the risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). A large body of evidence has firmly established a role for apoE in modulating the risk of developing the amyloid plaque pathology that is pathognomonic for AD. In this issue of the JCI, Liao and colleagues discovered that antibodies against a nonlipidated form of apoE4 are highly effective in delaying the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides in mouse models of AD pathology. Using a combination of passive immunization and viral-mediated expression of recombinant antibodies, the authors show that Fc receptor–mediated clearance of the nonlipidated apoE4 was critical in delaying Aβ deposition. Collectively, this study identifies a new therapeutic target that could be exploited to prevent, or possibly reverse, the Aβ pathology of AD.
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