Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a serine protease inhibitor found in fluids lining mucosal surfaces. In addition to its primary function as an antiprotease, SLPI may also influence cellular functions associated with enzyme synthesis and retroviral infection. In this study, SLPI was examined for its effect on signaling events involved in the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by monocytes. Addition of SLPI before stimulation with concanavalin A or LPS resulted in a significant inhibition of monocyte prostaglandin H synthase-2 (PGHS-2), a pivotal enzyme in the PGE2-cAMP dependent pathway of monocyte MMP synthesis. Suppression of PGHS-2 was detected with 0.1 microg/ml of SLPI with a substantial inhibition at 1 and 10 micro/ml. Attenuation of PGHS-2 by SLPI was accompanied by decreased production of PGE2 resulting in the suppression of interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) that was reversed by PGE2 or Bt2cAMP. The inhibitory effect of SLPI was largely independent of its antiprotease activity because SLPI muteins, with significantly lower antiprotease activity, also suppressed the induction of PGHS-2 and MMPs. The inhibitory effects of SLPI did not involve the modulation of monokine production since TNF-alpha and IL-10 were unaffected. These findings demonstrate that SLPI also functions as a potent antiinflammatory agent by interfering with the signal transduction pathway leading to monocyte MMP production.
Y Zhang, D L DeWitt, T B McNeely, S M Wahl, L M Wahl