Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PGs) inhibit virus replication in several DNA and RNA virus models, in vitro and in vivo. In the present report we demonstrate that the cyclopentenone prostaglandins PGA(1) and PGJ(2) at nontoxic concentrations can dramatically suppress HIV-1 replication during acute infection in CEM-SS cells. PGs did not affect HIV-1 adsorption, penetration, reverse transcriptase activity nor viral DNA accumulation in HIV-1 infected cells. A dramatic reduction in HIV-1 mRNA levels was detected up to 48-72 h after infection (p.i.) in PG-treated cells, and HIV-1 protein synthesis was greatly reduced by a single PG-treatment up to 96 h p.i. Repeated PGA(1)-treatments were effective in protecting CEM-SS cells by the cytopathic effect of the virus, and in dramatically reducing HIV-1 RNA levels up to 7 d after infection. The antiviral effect was not mediated by alterations in the expression of alpha-, beta-, or gamma-interferon,TNFalpha, TNFbeta, IL6, and IL10 in HIV-infected CEM-SS cells. The fact that prostaglandins are used clinically in the treatment of several diseases, suggests a potential use of cyclopentenone PGs in the treatment of HIV-infection.
C Rozera, A Carattoli, A De Marco, C Amici, C Giorgi, M G Santoro