The ligand for CD40 (CD40L) is a membrane protein on activated T cells that induces B cell proliferation and differentiation. Several mutations of the CD40L gene were reported responsible for defective class switching of B cells in an X-linked immunodeficiency with hyper IgM (X-HIM). We studied four affected males from three families and found three independent mutations including new mutations of CD40L gene. In every X-HIM patient tested, however, anti-CD40 plus IL-10 did not induce class switching from IgM to IgG or IgA, even in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (SAC). CD4+ T cell clones, expressing CD40L on their surface, also did not rescue IgG or IgA induction by X-HIM peripheral blood B cells in vitro. But signaling through CD40 induced both B cell proliferation and IgE secretion when IL-4 was added to the culture. Taken together, these results show that in vitro signaling through CD40 rescues IgE but not IgG or IgA secretion by peripheral blood X-HIM B cells and suggest that in vivo CD40 and CD40L interaction might be necessary for IgG and IgA differentiation in X-HIM.
O Saiki, T Tanaka, Y Wada, H Uda, A Inoue, Y Katada, M Izeki, M Iwata, H Nunoi, I Matsuda