Chronic metabolic acidosis has been previously shown to stimulate protein degradation. To evaluate the effects of chronic metabolic acidosis on nitrogen balance and protein synthesis we measured albumin synthesis rates and urinary nitrogen excretion in eight male subjects on a constant metabolic diet before and during two different degrees of chronic metabolic acidosis (NH4Cl 2.1 mmol/kg body weight, low dose group, and 4.2 mmol/kg body weight, high dose group, orally for 7 d). Albumin synthesis rates were measured by intravenous injection of [2H5ring]phenylalanine (43 mg/kg body weight, 7.5 atom percent and 15 atom percent, respectively) after an overnight fast. In the low dose group, fractional synthesis rates of albumin decreased from 9.9 +/- 1.0% per day in the control period to 8.4 +/- 0.7 (n.s.) in the acidosis period, and from 8.3 +/- 1.3% per day to 6.3 +/- 1.1 (P < 0.001) in the high dose group. Urinary nitrogen excretion increased significantly in the acidosis period (sigma delta 634 mmol in the low dose group, 2,554 mmol in the high dose group). Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine were significantly lower during acidosis. In conclusion, chronic metabolic acidosis causes negative nitrogen balance and decreases albumin synthesis in humans. The effect on albumin synthesis may be mediated, at least in part, by a suppression of insulin-like growth factor-I, free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine.
P E Ballmer, M A McNurlan, H N Hulter, S E Anderson, P J Garlick, R Krapf
Usage data is cumulative from June 2020 through June 2021.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.