Malaria parasites, unable to synthesize purine de novo, use host-derived hypoxanthine preferentially as purine source. In a previous study (1990. J. Biol. Chem. 265:6562-6568), we noted that xanthine oxidase rapidly and completely depleted hypoxanthine in human erythrocytes, not by crossing the erythrocyte membrane, but rather by creating a concentration gradient which facilitated hypoxanthine efflux. We therefore investigated the ability of xanthine oxidase to inhibit growth of FCR-3, a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum in human erythrocytes in vitro. Parasites were cultured in human group O+ erythrocytes in medium supplemented, as required, with xanthine oxidase or chloroquine. Parasite viability was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled glycine and adenosine triphosphate-derived purine into protein and nucleic acid, respectively, by nucleic acid accumulation, by L-lactate production, and by microscopic appearance. On average, a 90% inhibition of growth was observed after 72 h of incubation in 20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase. Inhibition was notably greater than that exerted by 10(-7) M chloroquine (less than 10%) over a comparable period. The IC50 for xanthine oxidase was estimated at 0.2 mU/ml, compared to 1.5 x 10(-7) M for chloroquine. Inhibition was completely reversed by excess hypoxanthine, but was unaffected by oxygen radical scavengers, including superoxide dismutase and catalase. The data confirms that a supply of host-derived hypoxanthine is critical for nucleic acid synthesis in P. falciparum, and that depletion of erythrocyte hypoxanthine pools of chloroquine-resistant malaria infection in humans. of chloroquine-resistant malaria infection in humans.
P A Berman, L Human, J A Freese