Mechanisms that might be responsible for the low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) associated with hypertriglyceridemia were studied in an animal model. Specific monoclonal antibodies were infused into female cynomolgus monkeys to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the rate-limiting enzyme for triglyceride catabolism. LPL inhibition produced marked and sustained hypertriglyceridemia, with plasma triglyceride levels of 633-1240 mg/dl. HDL protein and cholesterol and plasma apolipoprotein (apo) AI levels decreased; HDL triglyceride (TG) levels increased. The fractional catabolic rate of homologous monkey HDL apolipoproteins injected into LPL-inhibited animals (n = 7) was more than double that of normal animals (0.094 +/- 0.010 vs. 0.037 +/- 0.001 pools of HDL protein removed per hour, average +/- SEM). The fractional catabolic rate of low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein did not differ between the two groups of animals. Using HDL apolipoproteins labeled with tyramine-cellobiose, the tissues responsible for this increased HDL apolipoprotein catabolism were explored. A greater proportion of HDL apolipoprotein degradation occurred in the kidneys of hypertriglyceridemic than normal animals; the proportions in liver were the same in normal and LPL-inhibited monkeys. Hypertriglyceridemia due to LPL deficiency is associated with low levels of circulating HDL cholesterol and apo AI. This is due, in part, to increased fractional catabolism of apo AI. Our studies suggest that variations in the rate of LPL-mediated lipolysis of TG-rich lipoproteins may lead to differences in HDL apolipoprotein fractional catabolic rate.
I J Goldberg, W S Blaner, T M Vanni, M Moukides, R Ramakrishnan