The effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on the regulation of macrophage-specific colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) gene expression have been studied in HL-60 cells during monocytic differentiation. CSF-1 transcripts were undetectable in uninduced HL-60 cells, reached maximal levels by 3 h of exposure to TNF, and returned to that of control cells by 24 h. Transcriptional run-on analysis demonstrated that exposure to TNF stimulated the rate of CSF-1 gene transcription by 6.4-fold. The combination of a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, and TNF increased levels of CSF-1 mRNA compared with treatment by TNF alone. We also studied the signal transduction mechanisms responsible for regulating TNF-induced CSF-1 mRNA levels. Both 4-bromophenacyl bromide and quinacrine, inhibitors of phospholipase A2 activity, blocked TNF-induced increases in CSF-1 transcripts in a concentration-dependent manner, while caffeic acid and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, had no detectable effect on induction of CSF-1 RNA. PGE2 or dibutyryl cAMP treatment of HL-60 cells in the presence of TNF blocked the expression of CSF-1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the increase in CSF-1 RNA observed during TNF treatment is regulated, at least in part, by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, and that PGE2 and cAMP regulate transcriptional activation of the CSF-1 gene by TNF.
M L Sherman, B L Weber, R Datta, D W Kufe
Usage data is cumulative from September 2019 through September 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.