The role of charged sites on the permeability characteristics of the pulmonary microvascular barrier were investigated using chronically instrumented unanesthetized sheep. In one series of experiments we studied the effects of the cationic amphiphile, dodecyl trimethylamine (DTA; 297 mol wt), and the anionic amphiphile, SDS (288 mol wt), on lung lymph flow rates (Ql), lung lymph to plasma protein ratios (L/P), pulmonary hemodynamics, and systemic hemodynamics. DTA significantly increased both Ql and L/P, whereas SDS had a more modest and transient effect on these variables. In a second series of experiments the polycations polybrene and poly-l-lysine were found to have very similar effects as those of DTA. In another series of experiments we tested the pretreatment inhibition potential of chlorpheniramine (an H1 receptor antagonist), dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (db-cAMP), and the calcium channel antagonists verapamil and nifedipine on polybrene-induced lung injury. We found that only verapamil and db-cAMP significantly attenuated the permeability effects of polybrene. We conclude that both cationic amphiphiles and polycations cause hemodynamic and permeability alterations in the pulmonary circulation of unanesthetized sheep. In addition, the permeability alterations induced by polybrene can be modulated by intracellular calcium and/or cAMP levels.
T Toyofuku, S Koyama, T Kobayashi, S Kusama, G Ueda