Most antibodies to factor VIII have recently been shown to react with discrete regions of the factor VIII light chain (within the C2 domain) and/or the factor VIII heavy chain (within the amino-terminal segment of the A2 domain). The mechanism by which these antibodies, usually designated "factor VIII inhibitors," interfere with factor VIII function has been examined by determining their effect on factor VIII binding to a phospholipid. Factor VIII-phosphatidylserine binding was prevented by all seven factor VIII inhibitors that had strong factor VIII light chain reactivity and reduced by two inhibitors with weak anti-light chain reactivity. None of four inhibitors with heavy chain reactivity prevented factor VIII-phosphatidylserine interaction, though a partial reduction (less than 50%) was noted for the intact IgG preparations. However, when Fab' fragments were substituted, no detectable reduction in factor VIII-phosphatidylserine binding was noted for the anti-heavy chain inhibitors and complete inhibition was retained by the anti-light chain inhibitors. These data suggest that a subset of factor VIII inhibitors, those that bind to light chain determinants, inactivate factor VIII by preventing its effective interaction with phospholipid.
M Arai, D Scandella, L W Hoyer