The three widely distributed peptides derived from prosomatostatin are the original neurohormone somatostatin-14, somatostatin-28, and somatostatin-28(1-12), which are all derived from the COOH terminus of the precursor. Recently a decapeptide derived from the NH2 terminus of the prohormone has been identified in extracts of rat gastric antrum and named antrin. Data now show that in both rats and humans this new molecular form is concentrated in the D cell of the gastrointestinal mucosa together with somatostatin-28(1-12). The highest concentration of antrin immunofluorescent cells is located in the mucosa of the gastric antrum. Ultrastructural studies performed on pyloric D cells using the protein A-gold technique reveals that antrin is present in the same secretory granules as somatostatin-28(1-12) and detectable in one-third of all secretory granules. Acid extracts of rat hepatic portal plasma contain a peptide similar or identical to antrin, indicating that the antral decapeptide circulates in blood.
M Ravazzola, R Benoit, N Ling, L Orci