Sera and their IgG from 10/104 diabetic patients (five with insulin-dependent and five with noninsulin-dependent diabetes, NIDDM), contained antibodies that bound 125I-labeled purified human insulin receptors. 9 of these 10 sera failed to inhibit insulin binding (to rat hepatocytes and human placental membranes), did not stimulate glucose oxidation (by isolated rat adipocytes), and did not bind human placental IGF-1 receptors. Only one serum (and its IgG) modestly inhibited insulin binding and stimulated glucose oxidation. We conclude (a) that sera from 9/104 diabetics (five insulin-dependent and four noninsulin-dependent) contained a newly identified species of IgG antiinsulin receptor autoantibodies (AIRA), which bound to the insulin receptor at a locus different from the insulin binding site and did not inhibit insulin binding; and (b) that only 1/104 diabetic sera contained low-titer "conventional" antiinsulin receptor autoantibodies that bound to the insulin receptor at or near the insulin binding site, inhibited insulin binding and caused a clinical condition, which was difficult to distinguish from typical NIDDM.
G Boden, Y Fujita-Yamaguchi, R Shimoyama, J J Shelmet, L Tappy, I Rezvani, O E Owen