Thromboxane synthase inhibition can lead to two opposing effects: accumulation of proaggregatory cyclic endoperoxides and increased formation of antiaggregatory PGI2 and PGD2. The elimination of the effects of the cyclic endoperoxides by an endoperoxide-thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist should enhance the inhibition of hemostasis by thromboxane synthase blockers. We have carried out a series of double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies in healthy volunteers to check if this hypothesis may be operative in vivo in man. In a first study, in 10 healthy male volunteers, the combined administration of the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM 13.177 and the thromboxane synthase inhibitor dazoxiben gave stronger inhibition of platelet aggregation and prolonged the bleeding time more than either drug alone. In a second study, in 10 different healthy male volunteers, complete inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin reduced the prolongation of the bleeding time by the combination BM 13.177 plus dazoxiben. In a third study, in five volunteers, selective cumulative inhibition of platelet TXA2 synthesis by low-dose aspirin inhibited platelet aggregation and prolonged the bleeding time less than the combination BM 13.177 plus dazoxiben. In vitro, in human platelet-rich plasma stimulated with arachidonic acid, the combination of BM 13.177 and dazoxiben increased intraplatelet cAMP while the single drugs did not affect it. Our results indicate that prostaglandin endoperoxides can partly substitute for the activity of TXA2 in vivo in man and that an increased formation of endogenous antiaggregatory and vasodilatory prostaglandins, as obtained with selective thromboxane synthase inhibitors, may contribute to the impairment of hemostasis.
P Gresele, J Arnout, H Deckmyn, E Huybrechts, G Pieters, J Vermylen