Adherence to a substratum is a characteristic feature of monocyte-macrophages which may be required for several effector functions. Human peripheral blood monocytes selected by adherence were found to readhere preferentially at 1 h to fibronectin or to a biological matrix. There was then a progressive decrease in the number of adherent cells, and by 48 h only 8-20% of monocytes remained adherent. This loss of adherence occurred while monocytes remained viable by criteria such as exclusion of trypan blue or release of lactate dehydrogenase. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) maintained the adherence of cultured monocytes to tissue culture plastic as well as to the biological matrix. This effect was concentration- and time-dependent, and suppressed by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Cellular proteins were labeled after incubation with [35S]methionine. Analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed increased labeling of several distinct proteins in 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated monocytes compared with control monocytes. The increased loss of adherence and decreased overall protein synthesis observed in monocytes incubated at 45 degrees C was partially prevented by preincubation of the cells with 1,25-(OH)2D3. We further evaluated the effects of thermal stress and 1,25-(OH)2D3 on protein synthesis by monocytes, and found that 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased the synthesis of heat shock proteins, protected normal protein synthesis, and increased the rate of recovery of normal protein synthesis after the thermal stress. These observations suggest that 1,25-(OH)2D3 influences monocytes by preserving the synthesis of proteins, including those critical for the maintenance of cell adherence.
B S Polla, A M Healy, E P Amento, S M Krane