Because in the dog, the gastric fundus contains the largest amount of glucagon immunoreactivity (IRG), the IRG of mucosal scrapes of 105 canine stomachs was extracted by acid-ethanol and then precipitated by ether-ethanol. The IRG recovered was measured by antisera 30K, specific for glucagon and K-4023, which cross-reacts with glucagon-like immunoreactivity. Extracts of mucosa of stomach fundus were further purified by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-30 in 3M acetic acid. One pooled fraction corresponding to marker pancreatic glucagon in its elution volume was then gel-filtered on Bio-Gel P-30 in 0.05 M NH4HCO3 and yielded one IRG peak, which, however, showed three immunoreactive components on polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis in urea. In addition, antiserum K-4023 reacted more strongly with that peak than antiserum 30K indicating the presence of glucagon-like immunoreactivity in this fraction. Subsequent ion-exchange column chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and then CM-Bio-Gel A allowed purification to a single protein band on disc gel electrophoresis reacting equally to both antisera 30K and K-4023. 1.5 μg of purified gastric glucagon was obtained and its biological effects were compared to those of pancreatic glucagon in isolated rat hepatocytes. When immuno-equivalent amounts (300-2,500 pg/ml) of either type of glucagon were used, the same biological responses with respect to glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis as well as urea, lactate, and pyruvate production were observed. Liver cyclic AMP was also raised to the same extent by either one of these hormones. We conclude that this moiety of gastric IRG is apparently identical to pancreatic glucagon because (a) their molecular weights, elution properties in ion exchange chromatography, and their electrophoretic mobility are indistinguishable and (b) both hormones elicited identical biological effects in isolated rat hepatocytes.
K. Doi, M. Prentki, C. Yip, W. A. Muller, B. Jeanrenaud, M. Vranic