The effect of lowering the pressure of oxygen from 80 to 34 mm Hg was examined in anesthetized dogs that were undergoing a water diuresis. This degree of hypoxia was associated with an antidiuresis as urine osmolality (Uosm) increased from 107 to 316 mosmol/kg H2O (P < 0.001) and plasma arginine vasopressin increased from 0.06 to 7.5 μU/ml, (P < 0.05). However, hypoxia was not associated with significant changes in cardiac output (CO, from 4.2 to 4.7 liters/ min), mean arterial pressure (MAP, from 143 to 149 mm Hg), glomerular filtration rate (GFR, from 46 to 42 ml/min), solute excretion rate (SV, from 302 to 297 mosmol/min), or filtration fraction (from 0.26 to 0.27, NS). Hypoxia was associated with an increase in renal vascular resistance (from 0.49 to 0.58 mm Hg/ml per min, P < 0.01). The magnitude of hypoxia-induced antidiuresis was the same in innervated kidneys and denervated kidneys. To further examine the role of vasopressin in this antidiuresis, hypoxia was induced in hypophysectomized animals. The effect of hypoxia on CO, MAP, GFR, SV, and renal blood flow in hypophysectomized animals was the same as in intact animals. In contrast to intact animals, however, hypoxia did not induce a significant antidiuresis in hypophysectomized animals (Uosm from 72 to 82 mosmol/kg H2O). To delineate the afferent pathway for hypoxia-stimulated vasopressin release, hypoxia was induced in dogs with either chemo- or baroreceptor denervation. The effect of hypoxia on CO, MAP, GFR, SV, and renal blood flow in the denervated animals was the same as in nondenervated animals. Hypoxia resulted in an antidiuresis in chemoreceptor (Uosm from 113 to 357 mosmol/kg H2O, P < 0.001) but not in baroreceptor (Uosm from 116 to 138 mosmol/kg H2O, NS) denervated animals. To determine if hypoxia alters renal response to vasopressin, exogenous vasopressin was administered to normoxic and hypoxic groups of dogs. The antidiuretic effect of vasopressin was no different in these two groups. These results demonstrate that hypoxia induces an antidiuresis which is independent of alterations in CO, MAP, SV, filtration fraction, renal nerves, or renal response to vasopressin and occurs through baroreceptor-mediated vasopressin release. The nature of the baroreceptor stimulation remains to be elucidated.
Robert J. Anderson, Richard G. Pluss, Arnold S. Berns, James T. Jackson, Patricia E. Arnold, Robert W. Schrier, Keith M. McDonald