Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in eight baboons with bleomycin; five untreated animals were controls. After 45-65 U/kg of bleomycin, lung volumes and diffusing capacity were reduced, and static lung pressure-volume curves were shifted to the right. Right middle lobes were resected at this time in five bleomycin-treated and two control animals. Compared to controls, right middle lobes from bleomycintreated animals had increased weight and contained increased amounts of total protein, collagen, elastin, and DNA; synthesis of collagen and noncollagen protein were also elevated. Occasional alveolar septae were edematous and infiltrated by mononuclear inflammatory cells; a slight increase in collagen was demonstrable histologically. Four of six treated animals died with extensive diffuse interstitial fibrosis after 95 U/kg of bleomycin. Biochemical analyses revealed significantly elevated lobar contents of dry weight, protein, elastin, and collagen. Two animals survived 95 U/kg of bleomycin and were terminated 6 mo after treatment. In these animals, physiologic studies were indicative of restrictive lung disease, but lung histology was nearly normal. Lung weight, total protein, and DNA had returned to control values, but collagen and elastin were increased in amount and concentration. Bleomycin induces an intense inflammatory response in the lung. During this inflammation, connective tissue proliferation occurs in concert with proliferation of other tissue components. Cessation of bleomycin treatment is followed by resolution of inflammation manifested by decreases in tissue mass, cellular content, and nonconnective tissue protein. Collagen and elastin deposited during inflammation are less successfully removed during resolution, leading to a stage characterized by increased concentrations of these proteins. A similar sequence of tissue alterations may occur in idiopathic diffuse interstitial fibrosis of man in response to various lung injuries.