The in vivo metabolism of radioiodinelabeled C1q was determined in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and in healthy controls. Marked differences in metabolic behavior were observed with a much more rapid disappearance of plasma radioactivity in patients as compared with controls. Estimated plasma volumes at 10 min after injection (time 0) were normal in controls and the SLE patient, mean 40 ml/kg, whereas they were grossly elevated, 57-82 ml/kg, in the hypogammaglobulinemic and myeloma patients, indicating significant loss of C1q-125I during the initial mixing period. Absence of a distinct initial equilibration phase of radioactivity loss from the plasma suggested significant reversible interaction of the labeled C1q with plasma proteins and density gradient studies provided evidence for in vivo uptake into the circulating trimolecular first component complex (C1q, r, s). In controls and the SLE patient 0.51-0.75 of the C1q was retained in the plasma space while only 0.28 or less was in the others. The daily plasma pool fractional C1q catabolism was 0.65-0.67 in controls compared with 0.95-4.80 in the patients. C1q synthetic rates in controls were 4.64 and 4.34 mg/kg per day while higher rates, 4.94-37.40 occurred in the patients.
Peter F. Kohler, Hans J. Müller-Eberhard
Usage data is cumulative from June 2022 through June 2023.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.