Alpha2 adrenergic agonists are used in the anesthetic management of the surgical patient for their sedative/hypnotic properties although the alpha2 adrenoceptor subtype responsible for these anesthetic effects is not known. Using a gene-targeting strategy, it is possible to specifically reduce the expression of the individual adrenoceptors expressed in the central nervous system and to thereby determine their role in hypnotic action. Stably transfected cell lines (PC 124D for rat alpha2A; NIH3T3 for rat alpha2C adrenoceptors) were exposed to 5 microM antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) for alpha2A and alpha2C adrenergic receptor subtypes for 3 d. Individual receptor subtype expression, as determined by radiolabeled ligand binding, was selectively decreased only by the appropriate antisense ODNs and not by the "scrambled" ODNs. These antisense ODNs were then administered three times, on alternate days, into the locus coeruleus of chronically cannulated rats and their hypnotic response to dexmedetomidine (an alpha2 agonist) was determined. Only the alpha2A antisense ODNs significantly change the hypnotic response causing both an increase in latency to, and a decrease in duration of, the loss of righting reflex following dexmedetomidine; hypnotic response had normalized 8 d after stopping the ODNs. Therefore, the alpha2A adrenoceptor subtype is responsible for the hypnotic response to dexmedetomidine in the locus coeruleus of the rat.
T Mizobe, K Maghsoudi, K Sitwala, G Tianzhi, J Ou, M Maze
Leukocytes attach to and roll on inflamed endothelium and on leukocyte monolayers that form on the endothelial cells. Leukocyte-leukocyte interactions occurring under hydrodynamic shear stress are mediated by binding of L-selectin to unknown sialomucin-like glycoproteins. We show that purified neutrophil PSGL-1, a sialomucin glycoprotein that serves as a ligand for both P- and E-selectin, can also support the attachment and rolling of free flowing neutrophils in vitro. Neutrophil rolling on PSGL-1 was abolished by the anti-L-selectin mAb DREG200 and by the anti-PSGL-1 mAb PL1, indicating that L-selectin can interact directly with PSGL-1. Neutrophil rolling on neutrophil monolayers was also blocked by PL1 (60 +/- 9% SEM inhibition); however, DREG200 blocked more efficiently (93 +/- 7% SEM inhibition), suggesting that other L-selectin ligands may exist on the neutrophil surface. These studies demonstrate that PSGL-1 on the neutrophil surface is a major functional ligand for L-selectin. The avidity of this L-selectin-dependent adhesion event was sufficient to allow individual neutrophils rolling on P-selectin to capture free flowing neutrophils, which progressed to form linear strings and discrete foci of rolling neutrophils. Neutrophil accumulation on P-selectin accelerated with time as a result of neutrophil-assisted capture of free flowing neutrophils. When neutrophil-neutrophil interactions were blocked by DREG200, neutrophils accumulated on P-selectin in a random pattern and at a uniform rate. Thus, leukocyte-assisted capture of flowing leukocytes may play an important role in amplifying the rate of initial leukocyte recruitment at sites of inflammation.
B Walcheck, K L Moore, R P McEver, T K Kishimoto
An important component of amyloid fibrils in dialysis-related amyloidosis is a form of beta2microglobulin modified with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of the Maillard reaction, known as AGE-beta2M. We demonstrate here that the interaction of AGE-beta2M with mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), cells important in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory arthropathy of dialysis-related amyloidosis, is mediated by the receptor for AGEs, or RAGE. 125I-AGE-beta2M bound to immobilized RAGE or to MPs in a specific, dose-dependent manner (Kd approximately 53.5 and approximately 81.6 nM, respectively), a process inhibited in the presence of RAGE blockade. AGE-beta2M-mediated monocyte chemotaxis was prevented by excess sRAGE or anti-RAGE IgG. Induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) expression by MPs exposed to AGE-beta2M resulted from engagement of RAGE, as appearances of TNF transcripts and TNF antigen release into culture supernatants were prevented by addition of sRAGE, a process mediated, at least in part, by oxidant stress. AGE-beta2M reduced cytochrome c and the elaboration of TNF by MPs was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine. Consistent with these data, immunohistochemical studies of AGE-laden amyloid deposits of a long-term hemodialysis patient revealed positive staining for RAGE in the MPs infiltrating these lesions. These data indicate that RAGE is a central binding site for AGEs formed in vivo and suggest that AGE-beta2M-MP-RAGE interaction likely contributes to the initiation of an inflammatory response in amyloid deposits of long-term hemodialysis patients, a process which may ultimately lead to bone and joint destruction.
T Miyata, O Hori, J Zhang, S D Yan, L Ferran, Y Iida, A M Schmidt
Atypical hyperplastic (AH) breast lesions are currently classified and treated as benign proliferative disorders, but their presence is associated with a four- to fivefold increased risk of developing breast cancer. Currently, it is not known if an AH lesion is a marker of increased risk, or is itself a premalignant lesion. To investigate this question, we used a series of 15 microsatellite loci to analyze 15 separate AH lesions microdissected from the archived pathology specimens of subjects with no coincident or previous breast malignancy. We found that a significant subset (6/15, or 40%) of these AH lesions demonstrated evidence of monoclonal microsatellite alterations, both length variation and allele loss. These monoclonal alterations suggest that the AH lesion has already undergone genetic changes conferring a growth advantage. Thus, these AH lesions may actually be early neoplasms. We also noted that monoclonality characterized AH lesions in younger as compared with older women (44 vs. 59 yrs, P < 0.05) and that a subset of monoclonal lesions (4/6) demonstrated microsatellite alterations at more than one locus, suggesting that an undetermined type of genetic instability may play a role early in the development of abnormal breast proliferations. These findings contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of AH lesions and may have implications regarding their relationship to breast tumors.
C L Rosenberg, A de las Morenas, K Huang, L A Cupples, D V Faller, P S Larson
The hypothesis that leptin (OB protein) acts in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and body weight is based primarily on evidence from leptin-deficient, ob/ob mice. To investigate whether leptin exerts similar effects in normal animals, we administered leptin intracerebroventricularly (icv) to Long-Evans rats. Leptin administration (3.5 microg icv) at the onset of nocturnal feeding reduced food intake by 50% at 1 h and by 42% at 4 h, as compared with vehicle-treated controls (both P < 0.05). To investigate the basis for this effect, we used in situ hybridization (ISH) to determine whether leptin alters expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis. Two injections of leptin (3.5 microg icv) during a 40 h fast significantly decreased levels of mRNA for neuropeptide Y (NPY, which stimulates food intake) in the arcuate nucleus (-24%) and increased levels of mRNA for corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH, an inhibitor of food intake) in the paraventricular nucleus (by 38%) (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle-treated controls). To investigate the anatomic basis for these effects, we measured leptin receptor gene expression in rat brain by ISH using a probe complementary to mRNA for all leptin receptor splice variants. Leptin receptor mRNA was densely concentrated in the arcuate nucleus, with lower levels present in the ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei and other brain areas involved in energy balance. These findings suggest that leptin action in rat hypothalamus involves altered expression of key neuropeptide genes, and implicate leptin in the hypothalamic response to fasting.
M W Schwartz, R J Seeley, L A Campfield, P Burn, D G Baskin
The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is multifactorial and multigenetic. The apoptosis genes, fas and fas ligand (fasL), are candidate contributory genes in human SLE, as mutations of these genes result in autoimmunity in several murine models of this disease. In humans, fas mutations result in a familial autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, but defects in FasL have not yet been identified. In this study, DNA from 75 patients with SLE was screened by single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis for potential mutations of the extracellular domain of FasL. A heterozygous single-stranded conformational polymorphism for FasL, was identified in one SLE patient, who exhibited lymphadenopathy. Molecular cloning and sequencing indicated that the genomic DNA of this patient contained an 84-bp deletion within exon 4 of the fasL gene, resulting in a predicted 28 amino acid in-frame deletion. Analysis of PBMC from this patient revealed decreased FasL activity, decreased activation-induced cell death, and increased T cell proliferation after activation. This is the first report of defective FasL-mediated apoptosis related to a mutation of the human Fasl, gene in a patient with SLE and suggests that fasL mutations are an uncommon cause of the disease.
J Wu, J Wilson, J He, L Xiang, P H Schur, J D Mountz
Benign familial hematuria (BFH) is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, thinning of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and normal renal function. It is frequent in patients with persistent microscopic hematuria, but cannot be clinically differentiated from the initial stages of Alport syndrome, a severe GBM disorder which progresses to renal failure. We present here linkage of benign familial hematuria with the COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes at 2q35-37 (Zmax = 3.58 at theta = 0.0). Subsequently, a glycine to glutamic acid substitution was identified in the collagenous region of the COL4A4 gene. We conclude that type IV collagen defects cause both benign hematuria and Alport syndrome. Furthermore, our data suggest that BFH patients can be carriers of autosomal recessive Alport syndrome.
H H Lemmink, W N Nillesen, T Mochizuki, C H Schröder, H G Brunner, B A van Oost, L A Monnens, H J Smeets
To investigate the potential of DNA to elicit immune responses in man, we examined the capacity of a variety of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) to stimulate highly purified T cell-depleted human peripheral blood B cells. Among 47 ODNs of various sequences tested, 12 phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (sODNs) induced marked B cell proliferation and Ig production. IL-2 augmented both proliferation and production of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as IgM anti-DNA antibodies, but was not necessary for B cell stimulation. Similarly, T cells enhanced stimulation, but were not necessary for B cell activation. After stimulation with the active sODNs, more than 95% of B cells expressed CD25 and CD86. In addition, B cells stimulated with sODNs expressed all six of the major immunoglobulin VH gene families. These results indicate that the human B cell response to sODN is polyclonal. Active sODN coupled to Sepharose beads stimulated B cells as effectively as the free sODN, suggesting that stimulation resulted from engagement of surface receptors. These data indicate that sODNs can directly induce polyclonal activation of human B cells in a T cell-independent manner by engaging as yet unknown B cell surface receptors.
H Liang, Y Nishioka, C F Reich, D S Pisetsky, P E Lipsky
The survival motor neuron (SMN) gene was lacking in 6/12 patients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) associated with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Neither point mutation in the SMN gene nor evidence for linkage to chromosome 5q13 were found in the other patients. Hitherto, arthrogryposis was regarded as an exclusion criterion in SMA. Our data strongly suggest that AMC of neurogenic origin is genetically heterogeneous, with a subgroup being allelic to SMA. Absence or interruption of the SMN gene in the AMC-SMA association will make the diagnosis easier and genetic counselling will now become feasible.
L Bürglen, J Amiel, L Viollet, S Lefebvre, P Burlet, O Clermont, V Raclin, P Landrieu, A Verloes, A Munnich, J Melki
In order to reach the sites of inflammation, lymphocytes leave the bloodstream and migrate into peripheral tissues, in a process involving integrin-mediated adhesion to the vascular endothelium, followed by transmigration across the endothelial barrier and through the underlying interstitial matrix. We have investigated the role of the plasminogen activator/plasmin system in normal T cell migration. Receptors for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) were not expressed in resting T lymphocytes, but could be efficiently induced at the mRNA and protein level by coclustering of the antigen receptor complex and beta1 or beta2 integrins, through a signalling pathway involving both protein kinase C activation and an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP. Catalytic activation of plasminogen by uPAR-expressing T cells promoted their migration through an extracellular matrix in vitro. Plasmin-induced invasion was inhibited by plasmin-and urokinase inhibitors and by anti-uPAR antibodies. Finally, cytofluorimetric and immunohistochemical analysis of primary human tumor specimens showed the presence of uPAR positive infiltrating T cells in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggest that plasminogen activation may play a role in lymphocyte migration in vivo, and that integrin-dependent expression of membrane-associated endopeptidases could represent an additional step in the regulated process of leukocyte transmigration.
E Bianchi, E Ferrero, F Fazioli, F Mangili, J Wang, J R Bender, F Blasi, R Pardi
We recently identified a cDNA in the rat that encodes a broadly expressed PG transporter (PGT). Because PGs play diverse and important roles in human health and disease, we cloned human PGT (hPGT) from an adult human kidney cDNA library. A consensus sequence (4.0 kb) derived from several clones, plus 3' polymerase chain reaction amplification, exhibited 74% nucleic acid identity and 82% amino acid identity compared to rat PGT. When transiently expressed in HeLa cells, a full-length clone catalyzed the transport of PGE1, PGE2, PGD2, PGF2alpha, and, to a lesser degree, TXB2. Northern blotting revealed mRNA transcripts of many different sizes in adult human heart, placenta, brain, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, kidney, spleen, prostate, ovary, small intestine, and colon. hPGT mRNAs are also strongly expressed in human fetal brain, lung, liver, and kidney. The broad tissue distribution and substrate profile of hPGT suggest a role in the transport and/or metabolic clearance of PGs in diverse human tissues.
R Lu, N Kanai, Y Bao, V L Schuster
To determine whether indirect allorecognition is involved in heart allograft rejection T cells obtained from peripheral blood and graft biopsy tissues were expanded in the presence of IL-2 and tested in limiting dilution analysis (LDA) for reactivity to synthetic peptides corresponding to the hypervariable regions of the mismatched HLA-DR antigen(s) of the donor. Serial studies of 32 patients showed that T cell reactivity to donor allopeptides was strongly associated with episodes of acute rejection. The frequency of allopeptide reactive T cells was 10-50-fold higher in the graft than in the periphery indicating that T cells activated via the indirect allorecognition pathway participate actively in acute allograft rejection. In recipients carrying a graft differing by two HLA-DR alleles the response appeared to target only one of the mismatched antigens of the donor. Indirect allorecognition was restricted by a single HLA-DR antigen of the host and directed against one immunodominant peptide of donor HLA-DR protein. However, intermolecular spreading was demonstrated in patients with multiple rejection episodes by showing that they develop allopeptide reactivity against the second HLA-DR antigen. These data imply that early treatment to suppress T cell responses through the indirect pathway of allorecognition, such as tolerance induction to the dominant donor determinant, may be required to prevent amplification and perpetuation of the rejection process.
Z Liu, A I Colovai, S Tugulea, E F Reed, P E Fisher, D Mancini, E A Rose, R Cortesini, R E Michler, N Suciu-Foca
Allergic contact dermatitis differs from most other immune reactions by its strict dose dependence during the elicitation phase. Moreover, almost all known contact allergens can also induce dose-dependent irritative dermatitis and in general only elicit allergic contact dermatitis in sensitized individuals when applied within a narrow dose range. Therefore, we hypothesized that elicitation of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) may require two signals, antigen-specific effector cell activation and a non-antigen-specific proinflammatory signal, both of which are provided by application of a sufficient dose of hapten. To dissociate these putative two signals, oxazolone-sensitized mice were ear challenged with a dose of the specific hapten which was too low to elicit CHS. At the same time, an unrelated hapten was applied in a conventional concentration to the same skin site. Whereas neither treatment alone elicited a significant CHS response, application of both compounds together resulted in a strong CHS response that was indistinguishable from that elicited by the full dose of the specific hapten. Upon coadministration of the irrelevant hapten, allergic contact dermatitis could be elicited even when the dose of the specific hapten was further reduced by a factor of 10(3). In contrast, a dose reduction of the irrelevant hapten by a factor of two resulted in the loss of the CRS response. These data indicate that non-antigen-specific effects of epicutaneously applied haptens significantly contribute to the elicitation of CHS responses and that the capacity of the hapten to evoke this proinflammatory stimulus rather than its antigenicity is responsible for the strict concentration dependence.
S Grabbe, M Steinert, K Mahnke, A Schwartz, T A Luger, T Schwarz
Lonidamine, a dichlorinated derivative of indazole-3-carboxylic acid, was shown to play a significant role in reversing or overcoming multidrug resistance. Here, we show that exposure to 50 microg/ml of lonidamine induces apoptosis in adriamycin and nitrosourea-resistant cells (MCF-7 ADR(r) human breast cancer cell line, and LB9 glioblastoma multiform cell line), as demonstrated by sub-G1 peaks in DNA content histograms, condensation of nuclear chromatin, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Moreover, we find that apoptosis is preceded by accumulation of the cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, lonidamine fails to activate the apoptotic program in the corresponding sensitive parental cell lines (ADR-sensitive MCF-7 WT, and nitrosourea-sensitive LI cells) even after long exposure times. The evaluation of bcl-2 protein expression suggests that this different effect of lonidamine treatment in drug-resistant and -sensitive cell lines might not simply be due to dissimilar expression levels of bcl-2 protein. To determine whether the lonidamine-induced apoptosis is mediated by p53 protein, we used cells lacking endogenous p53 and overexpressing either wild-type p53 or dominant-negative p53 mutant. We find that apoptosis by lonidamine is independent of the p53 gene.
D Del Bufalo, A Biroccio, S Soddu, N Laudonio, C D'Angelo, A Sacchi, G Zupi
Since transglutaminases create covalent gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine cross-links between extracellular matrix proteins they are prime candidates for stabilizing tissue during wound healing. Therefore, we studied the temporo-spatial expression of transglutaminase activity in skin regenerating from cultured epithelial autografts in severely burned children by the specific incorporation of monodansylcadaverine into cryostat sections from skin biopsies obtained between 5 d to 17 mo after grafting. The dansyl label was subsequently immunolocalized in the epidermis, dermal connective tissue, and along the basement membrane. Incubation of cryosections of normal and regenerating skin with purified tissue transglutaminase confirmed the dermo-epidermal junction and the papillary dermis as targets for this enzyme and revealed that in regenerating skin transamidation of the basement membrane zone was completed only 4-5 mo after grafting. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that three distinct regions on the central portion of anchoring fibrils were positive for monodansylcadaverine in normal skin which were negative during the initial phase of de novo formation of anchoring fibrils in regenerating skin. Biochemically, we identified collagen VII as potential substrate for tissue transglutaminase. Thus, tissue transglutaminase appears to play an important role not only in cross-linking of the papillary dermis but also of the dermo-epidermal junction in particular.
M Raghunath, B Höpfner, D Aeschlimann, U Lüthi, M Meuli, S Altermatt, R Gobet, L Bruckner-Tuderman, B Steinmann
The molecular and cellular basis of long-term T cell memory against viral antigens is still largely undefined. To characterize anti-viral protection by memory T cells against non-cytopathic viruses able to cause acute self-limited and chronic infections, such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV), we studied HLA class II restricted responses against HBV structural antigens in 17 patients with acute hepatitis B, during the acute stage of infection and 2.2 to 13 yr after clinical resolution of disease. Results indicate that: (a) significant T cell proliferative responses to HBV nucleocapsid antigens were detectable in all patients during the acute phase of infection and in 14/17 also 2-13 yr after clinical resolution of disease; b) long-lasting T cell responses were sustained by CD45RO+T cells, predominantly expressing the phenotype of recently activated cells; c) limiting dilution analysis showed that in some patients the frequency of HBV-specific T cells was comparable to that observed in the acute stage of infection and, usually, higher than in patients with chronic HBV infection; d) the same amino acid sequences were recognized by T cells in the acute and recovery phases of infection; and e) HBV-DNA was detectable by nested-PCR in approximately half of the subjects. to conclusion, our results show that vigorous anti-viral T cell responses are detectable in vitro several years after clinical recovery from acute hepatitis B. Detection of minute amounts of virus in some recovered subjects suggests that long-term maintenance of an active anti-viral T cell response could be important not only for protection against reinfection but also for keeping the persisting virus under tight control.
A Penna, M Artini, A Cavalli, M Levrero, A Bertoletti, M Pilli, F V Chisari, B Rehermann, G Del Prete, F Fiaccadori, C Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion are traits that are both genetically and environmentally determined. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of the insulin sensitivity index (Si), the acute insulin response, and glucose effectiveness (Sg) in young healthy Caucasians and to estimate the relative impact of anthropometric and environmental determinants on these variables. METHODS: The material included 380 unrelated Caucasian subjects (18-32 yr) with measurement of Si, Sg and insulin secretion during a combined intravenous glucose (0.3 grams/kg body weight) and tolbutamide (3 mg/kg body weight) tolerance test. RESULTS: The distributions of Si and acute insulin response were skewed to the right, whereas the distribution of Sg was Gaussian distributed. Sg was 15% higher in women compared with men (P < 0.001). Waist circumference, body mass index, maximal aerobic capacity, and women's use of oral contraceptives were the most important determinants of Si. Approximately one-third of the variation of Si could be explained by these factors. Compared with individuals in the upper four-fifths of the distribution of Si, subjects with Si in the lowest fifth had higher waist circumference, higher blood pressure, lower VO2max, and lower glucose tolerance and fasting dyslipidemia and dysfibrinolysis. Only 10% of the variation in acute insulin response could be explained by measured determinants. CONCLUSION: Estimates of body fat, maximal aerobic capacity, and women's use of oral contraceptives explain about one-third of the variation in Si in a population-based sample of young healthy Caucasians.
J O Clausen, K Borch-Johnsen, H Ibsen, R N Bergman, P Hougaard, K Winther, O Pedersen
Prolonged exposure to mutagenic substances is strongly associated with an individual's risk of developing colorectal cancer. Clinical investigation of oltipraz as a chemopreventive agent is supported by its induction of the expression of detoxication enzymes in various tissues, and its protective activity against the formation of chemically induced colorectal tumors in animals. The goals of the present study were: to determine if oltipraz could induce detoxicating gene expression in human tissues; to identify effective non-toxic doses for more extensive clinical testing; and to establish a relationship between effects in the colon mucosa and those in a more readily available tissue, the peripheral mononuclear cell. 24 evaluable patients at high risk for colorectal cancer were treated in a dose-finding study with oltipraz 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/m2 as a single oral dose. Biochemical analysis of sequential blood samples and colon mucosal biopsies revealed increases in glutathione transferase activity at the lower dose levels. These effects were not observed at the higher doses. More pronounced changes were observed in detoxicating enzyme gene expression in both tissues at all doses. Peripheral mononuclear cell and colon mRNA content for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) and DT-diaphorase increased after dosing to reach a peak on day 2-4 after treatment, and declined to baseline in the subsequent 7-10 d. The extent of induction of gene expression in colon mucosa reached a peak of 5.75-fold for gamma-GCS, and a peak of 4.14-fold for DT-diaphorase at 250 mg/m2 ; higher doses were not more effective. Levels of gamma-GCS and DT-diaphorase correlated closely (P < or = 0.001) between peripheral mononuclear cells and colon mucosa both at baseline and at peak. These findings demonstrate that the administration of minimally toxic agents at low doses may modulate the expression of detoxicating genes in the tissues of individuals at high risk for cancer. Furthermore, peripheral mononuclear cells may be used as a noninvasive surrogate endpoint biomarker for the transcriptional response of normal colon mucosa to drug administration.
P J O'Dwyer, C E Szarka, K S Yao, T C Halbherr, G R Pfeiffer, F Green, J M Gallo, J Brennan, H Frucht, E B Goosenberg, T C Hamilton, S Litwin, A M Balshem, P F Engstrom, M L Clapper
Immunomodulatory cytokines and growth factors act in a complex network to regulate diverse biologic processes. Pre-treatment of two types of human vascular pericytes, liver fat-storing cells or glomerular mesangial cells, with IFN-gamma dramatically enhanced DNA synthesis in response to PDGF or EGF. IFN-gamma by itself had very little effect on DNA synthesis. At least 24-h exposure of the cells to IFN-gamma is required for enhancement of growth factor-induced mitogenesis. IFN-gamma pretreatment did not influence PDGF or EGF receptor autophosphorylation, activation of phospholipase Cgamma1, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, or mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. However, IFN-gamma pretreatment markedly potentiated the DNA binding activity of STAT1alpha in response to PDGF or EGF. Incubation of cells with antisense oligonucleotides targeting STATlalpha mRNA resulted in inhibition of DNA synthesis induced by the combination of IFN-gamma and PDGF or EGF. These data indicate that interaction between IFN-gamma and growth factors at the level of STAT1alpha results in increased DNA synthesis, and establish a role for STAT1alpha in this important biologic function of growth factors.
F Marra, G G Choudhury, H E Abboud
To determine whether glycogen synthase (GS) activity remains impaired in skeletal muscle of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients or can be normalized after prolonged culture, needle biopsies of vastus lateralis were obtained from 8 healthy nondiabetic control (ND) and 11 NIDDM subjects. After 4-6 wk growth and 4 d fusion in media containing normal physiologic concentrations of insulin (22 pM) and glucose (5.5 mM), both basal (5.21 +/- 0.79 vs 9.01 +/- 1.25%, P < 0.05) and acute insulin-stimulated (9.35 +/- 1.81 vs 16.31 +/- 2.39, P < 0.05) GS fractional velocity were reduced in NIDDM compared to ND cells. Determination of GS kinetic constants from muscle cells of NIDDM revealed an increased basal and insulin-stimulated Km(0.1) for UDP-glucose, a decreased insulin-stimulated Vmax(0.1) and an increased insulin-stimulated activation constant (A(0.5)) for glucose-6-phosphate. GS protein expression, determined by Western blotting, was decreased in NIDDM compared to ND cells (1.57 +/- 0.29 vs 3.30 +/- 0.41 arbitrary U/mg protein, P < 0.05). GS mRNA abundance also tended to be lower, but not significantly so (0.168 +/- 0.017 vs 0.243 +/- 0.035 arbitrary U, P = 0.08), in myotubes of NIDDM subjects. These results indicate that skeletal muscle cells of NIDDM subjects grown and fused in normal culture conditions retain defects of basal and insulin-stimulated GS activity that involve altered kinetic behavior and possibly reduced GS protein expression. We conclude that impaired regulation of skeletal muscle GS in NIDDM patients is not completely reversible in normal culture conditions and involves mechanisms that may be genetic in origin.
R R Henry, T P Ciaraldi, L Abrams-Carter, S Mudaliar, K S Park, S E Nikoulina
We tested the hypothesis that ethanol impairs liver regeneration by abrogating receptor-mediated elevation of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i). In rats fed for 16 weeks with ethanol, hepatocellular proliferation induced by partial hepatectomy was greatly impaired. Similarly, EGF-induced DNA synthesis was reduced in cultured hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats. There was no change in the number or affinity of EGF receptors on hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats. Despite this, EGF-mediated production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins[1,4,5]P3) was lower in hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats, and the EGF-induced [Ca2+]i transient appeared to be abrogated. When vasopressin or phenylephrine were used as cell surface receptor ligands, hepatocytes cultured from ethanol-fed rats exhibited major reductions in Ins(1,4,5)P3 synthesis. This was associated with greatly truncated [Ca2+]i transients. These changes were not due to an effect on the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor on the endoplasmic reticulum or to a decrease in the size of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-mobilizable intracellular Ca+2 store. Further, mobilization of the same Ca2+ store by 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone or thapsigargin restored the ability of hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats to proliferate when exposed to EGF. It is concluded that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits liver regeneration by a mechanism that is, at least partly, the result of impaired receptor-operated [Ca2+]i signaling due to reduced generation of Ins(1,4,5)P3.
B H Zhang, B P Hornsfield, G C Farrell
Fas is an apoptosis-signaling receptor molecule expressed in vivo on thymocytes, liver, heart, and ovary. In vivo administration of the anti-Fas Jo2 antibody in mice induces severe apoptotic liver damage leading to fulminant hepatitis and death. Linomide, a quinoline 3-carboxamide, inhibits apoptosis of B and T cells induced by various stimuli including viruses, superantigens, and glucocorticoids. Mice treated with linomide survived the lethal effect of anti-Fas antibody, did not accumulate ceramide in hepatocytes, and recovered liver structure and function within 96 h of anti-Fas injection, as confirmed by histology and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Surviving mice showed severe depletion of cortical thymocytes, but medullar thymic cells expressing high CD3 and Fas levels also survived the treatment with anti-Fas in the presence of linomide. Heart, lung, and ovary showed no signs of apoptosis promoted by Fas ligation. These results suggest that linomide prevents cell death triggered by Fas ligation and can be useful for therapeutic intervention in fulminant hepatitis.
C Redondo, I Flores, A Gonzalez, S Nagata, A C Carrera, I Merida, C Martinez-A
Adriamycin (ADR) is a potent anticancer drug known to cause severe cardiac toxicity. Although ADR generates free radicals, the role of free radicals in the development of cardiac toxicity and the intracellular target for ADR-induced cardiac toxicity are still not well understood. We produced three transgenic mice lines expressing increased levels of human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a mitochondrial enzyme, as an animal model to investigate the role of ADR-mediated free radical generation in mitochondria. The human MnSOD was expressed, functionally active, and properly transported into mitochondria in the heart of transgenic mice. The levels of copper-zinc SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase did not change in the transgenic mice. Electron microscopy revealed dose-dependent ultrastructural alterations with marked mitochondrial damage in nontransgenic mice treated with ADR, but not in the transgenic littermates. Biochemical analysis indicated that the levels of serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in ADR-treated mice were significantly greater in nontransgenic than their transgenic littermates expressing a high level of human MnSOD after ADR treatment. These results support a major role for free radical generation in ADR toxicity as well as suggesting mitochondria as the critical site of cardiac injury.
H C Yen, T D Oberley, S Vichitbandha, Y S Ho, D K St Clair
Native 30-kD antigen, also known as alpha antigen, is a fibronectin-binding protein that is secreted by live Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This antigen may play an important biological role in the host-parasite interaction since it elicits delayed type hypersensitivity response and protective immunity in vivo and T lymphocyte blastogenesis and IFN-gamma production in vitro. In the present study, we show that, TNF-alpha protein is produced in monocyte culture supernatants in response to 30-kD antigen and the level is as high as that to purified protein derivative of M. tuberculosis. This stimulatory effect was not due to contamination with either bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan. The preincubation of monocytes with plasma fibronectin significantly enhanced the release of TNF-alpha into the culture supernatants in response to 30-kD antigen. This effect was blocked by polygonal antibody to plasma fibronectin. In contrast, the monocytic cell line U937 failed to release TNF-alpha protein in the culture supernatants in response to 30-kD antigen with or without preincubation with plasma fibronectin. To determine whether this observation was due to differential binding of the 30-kD to fibronectin on these cells, a cell based ELISA was used. Pretreatment of monocytes with fibronectin enhanced their binding of the 30-kD antigen. U937 cells bound the 30-kD antigen weakly with or without fibronectin pretreatment. These results indicate that 30-kD antigen which is a known secretary antigen of M. tuberculosis is a stimulus for human monocytes to express TNF-alpha and that stimulatory effect may be mediated through plasma fibronectin.
H Aung, Z Toossi, J J Wisnieski, R S Wallis, L A Culp, N B Phillips, M Phillips, L E Averill, T M Daniel, J J Ellner